A NEW SYNTHESIS by Guy Beckley Stearns MD and Edgar D.Evia

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Einstein is waving Lady Nicotine.

   " And the fourth dimensional will baffle a man   with a "Newtonian brain," for his visual world is three-dimensional, and his brain waves are three-dimensional, and his imagination is three-dimensional. But a man with an "Einsteinian brain" has a four-dimensional imagination and can picture a
four-dimensional space." -- From the Book of Special Relativity

The years 1880 to 1920 saw the rise of Homoeopathy with its symptomatic approach, and the succeeding years witnessed its. decline with the impact of modern pathologic approach.- A renaissance of Homoeopathy became necessary and the task was undertaken and accomplished by the late Dr. Guy Beckley Stearns. In an obituary, Dr. William Gutman, President of the Foundation, for Homoeopathic Research, Inc., New York, said of Dr. Stearns as follows :
"He was the first who tried to prove experimentally the effect of high potencies through animal experiments, using guinea pigs and fruitflies.
"When Abrams reported his findings concerning body reactions and their evaluation, Stearns became immensely interested in this field. He recognised that such reactions could have nothing to do with electronics, but must be reflex-reactions transmitted through the autonomic system. The body reflexes aroused his interest. Again, he was the first to introduce tiie scientific development of these new1 conceptions, as expressed by the work of Boyd in Glasgow, into American homoeopathy. He was the first to use Boyd's emanometer in this country '(America). As an outgrowth of all these endeavours, he established the Foundation for Homoeopathic Research for a systematic study of all reactions of the autonomous system toward potencies.
" Finally, in a book, A New Synthesis, written together with-Edgar D. Evia, he gave a summary of his medical, biological, and philosophical conceptions. It contains a great number of most interesting facts and a comprehensive philosophy of important aspects of homoeopathy and general biology-point­ing far into the future. "
A New Synthesis appeared serially in The Journal of the American Institute of Homeopatfiy from March to June, 1942, and we are taking the liberty of republishing it, along with The Physical Basis of Homeopathy by the same authors, which appeared in the February 1942 issue of the Journal, as it is of permanent interest to the homoeopathic world.
Roy & Company 10th April, 1960
First Reprint ,1982

First Reprint ,1982



Foreword iii

The Physical Basis of Homoeopathy   1  - 20

References 20

A New Synthesis 

1    The Birth of the Universe 23
2    Purposeful Life 24
3    The Birth of Life 26
4   The Adjustments of Life 28
5    Dowsing 33
6    The Work of Abrams 39
7    Boyd and the Dynamis 45
8    The Dynamis and Parapsychology 61
9    Physics and Creation 65
10    Summary 73
11    Medical Aspects 75
Things to Do 
1    Retrospect 77
2    Tissue Tonus 79
3    Other Reflexes 88
4    Conclusion 91
References 97
Index 100


The Physical Basis of Homeopathy
  ( page 19 -20 )

For the first time , we are able to rise above Hahnemann's purposely-vague phrase," spirit-like ".We are beginning to graduate from a qualitative to a quantitative study. And the potency problem, no longer an abstraction, enters the domain of physics. It is now time to devote our consideration to the biological aspects of potent activity. This ground will be covered in a second essay. The physical and biological commentaries should,however, not be separated in the mind. They belong together. 

A  New Synthesis

1.    The birth of the  Universe

( Page 24 )

"...the earth, even developed what would have been thought impossible by one observing the initial universal state of density and heat : Life. Somehow, life appeared on earth. It is there yet. And as this life looks out toward the heavens, it per­ceives that the universe is still flying apart as the result of that original explosion billions of years ago. All that exists today possesses its present characteristics because of the structure of the universe, and this structure in turn goes back to, forces and potentialities that were imprisoned with­in the hot, dense substance before the explosion. Even the life which peers out and speculates on its past and its future lay dormant in the primeval stuff.

The Primordial Harmonic Template of the Universe

" Everything is determined, the beginning as well as the end, by forces over which we have no control. It is determined for insects as well as for the stars. Human beings, vegetables, or cosmic dust, we all dance to a mysterious tune, intoned in the distance by an invisible piper."

- Albert Einstein


1.    The   Birth   of   the   Universe.

In order to understand he significance of life, it is necessary to go back even before the origin of life to the birth of he universe. This birth, and the subsequent story, have been reconstructed in the following way :
Once, the universe occupied but a fraction of its pre­sent volume. Since its substance was inconceivably conden­sed, the temperature was higher than anything possible to­day even at the hearts of stars (for temperature and den­sity in these cases vary together). There were no stars. The universal stuff spread out uniform and undifferentiated. Whatever its unknown activities , it held potentially all that has since developed from it.
Then, this dense hot substance suddenly exploded, hurling the fragments of the universe radially outward. The explosion caused the material of the universe to ex­pand ; hence the density rapidly became lower. And, following an immutable law, at once the temperature start­ed to slide down. But the dropping temperature produced a further consequence : the material of the universe, still in the process of explosion and thinning rapidly out, began to assume the properties of a gas approximately as we understand a gas today. And in this thinning gas cores separated out. The gas clumped around the cores, leaving cnlarging empty spaces between the clumps. These were the earnest stars, extremely hot and enormously big. By now the explosion had been going on for billions of years. And as the universe was actually exploding during all this activity, the distance between stars naturally increased — an expanding universe — and the temperature kept lower­ing and the substance of each star grew denser. All of these stars were in motion, about their axes and in relation to one mother, due to kinetic energy acquired as a conse­quence of explosion.1 And when conditions were favourable, some of these stars threw oft fiery tentacles that encircled them, condensed and became planets.  One of these planets,

the earth, even developed what would have been thought impossible by one observing the initial universal state of density and heat : Life. Somehow, life appear on earth. It is there yet.
And as this life locks out toward the heaven, it per­ceives that the universe is still flying apart as the result of that original explosion billions of years ago. All that exists today possesses its present characteristics because of the structure of the universe and this structure in turn goes back to forces and potentialities that were imprisoned within the hot, dense substance before the explosion. Even the life which peers out and speculates on its past and its future lay dormant in the primeval stuff .

2.    Purposeful Life.

One thing is certain life is no mere incident in geo­logical history. The early atmosphere, for instance, had quite a different constitution from today's. It had no free oxygen, only the oxygen  which had combined chemically with the minerals of the earth's surface. It probably had little free nitrogen. But it abounded in carbon monoxide and held also some prussic acid — two deadly poisons. The seas of the times readily absorbed these two poisonous substances. Yet it is in the sea that life is thought to have originated.2 And it is the early dominance of plant life for hundreds of million of years, breathing in carbon and exhaling oxygen, that gave to the atmosphere a carbon-oxygen balance capable of sustaining animal life. The composition of today's air is largely the work of life. Planets like Venus, whose atmosphere is devoid of oxygen but heavy with carbon, probably do not support any but vegetable life, if they support life at all.  Such work as this, on a scale to rival the vast construction: of nature, can be no mere incident.
The iron deposits of the Mesabi range around Lake Superior are the work  of one of the oldest life forms, the autotrophic bacteria Leptothrix. This early life obtained its energy by oxidising iron; other forms oxidized nitrogen,

sulphur, manganese, ammonia. For millions of years Leptothrix  lived, perished, and sank to the bottom of the im­poverished seas of the time,  depositing its minute particle of iron. A huge accumulation of iron was thus built up ,after the  fashion of coral reef , which represent the skele­tal remains  of untold billions of sedimented calcareous creatures. Eventually the bottom of the sea, bearing its burden of iron as laid down by Leptothrix, was heaved up by geologic convulsions. The seabed became an uplifted range high above water, the Mesabi range of today, one or the richest of known iron seams. In this manner have living  organisms deeply scarred the face of the earth . To­day that iron is mined, distributed, converted into struc­tures and implements by means of which further changes are wrought on the earth's topography.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         But what of the incalculable influence of the plant kingdom, apart from its effect on the constitution of

the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   atmosphereGreen things bind the soil, preventing. erosion. Tracts of forest tend to attract clouds and provide natural reservoirs for rain.6 The occurrence of rain deeply affects the weather, which is one of the most important of the agents in the erosion of  both rocks1, and soil. Minerals are washed down to the sea by rain, and the mineral com­position of the sea changes over a period of ages. The levelling of mountain ranges by the tireless effort of weather alters the equilibrium of the earth's crust, which actually floats on the denser but plastic substance of the core. This crust seeks a new equilibrium, and the result is the raising of new mountain, ranges, the alteration of continental outlines and the redistribution of the seas. Plants naturally are not a prime  agency in these processes, but they have played an important role in helping to deter­mine geological topography.  AIthough weather will deter­mine what sort of plant growth is able to survive in any locality, the establishment of that growth helps thereafter to maintain the beneficent climatic conditions and their particular action on Soil and Rock.
Far from being incidental, life has actually helped to mould the physical configuration of the earth.  For in the


accumulated generations  of living creatures  are  unbeliev­able power and perseverance.

3.    The Birth of Life.

The life which has evolved on earth is peculiarly adjusted to its organic environment. This adjustment is an accompaniment of the somatic functions and takes place as spontaneously and unconsciously as physiological func­tions. It is natural for living creatures to be guided by responses whose mechanism is not obviously related to coarse, physical environment, just as the tangible pheno­mena of matter and radiation are related together by the properties of an invisible, " empty," but encompassing space. The early results of such adjustment were the steps in the evolution of life from crude bacteria like the auto­trophic Leptothrix. After eons of autotrophic domination,life took a step forward, and the earliest blue-green Algae scummed over the marginal waters. Further experiment led the Algae to develop chlorophyll — and, in the person
of true, green Algae, appeared the beginnings of the oldest, most widespread and versatile of living creatures, the green plants. But ages passed during which this moiling
of early life was confined to the sea, while the coast stretched desolate, sterile, Aiming with painted rock like today 's Grand Canyon. 
Then the early life differentiated itself. Part experimented with locomotion, gaining the independence conferred by motion and the ability to search after food in remote places where food was not at hand.  In this manner appeared aquatic animals. Henceforth, 1ife developed along two major lines : the vegetable, rooted and motionless, working with chlorophyll to manufacture its living substance out of sunlight, water and carbon ; and the animal line, which invented organs of locomotion and sacrificed, in exchange, the gift of chlorophyll.   
Animlals also invented red blood, which is their substitute for chlorophyll.    Nowhere is the ingeniousness of               

life more evident than here. The basic chlorophyll mole­cule holds a magnesium atom which controls the oxidation of foodstuffs and the accompanying release of energy. In red blood, this basic chlorophyll molecule reappears with only one change : the magnesium oxidizer is replaced by an iron oxidizer. Some animals, like the horseshoe crab, have invented blue blood, in which copper is the oxidizer instead of iron or magnesium. But the basic molecule of all bloods (green, red, blue), called hematin, is one in structure arid differs only in the metal atom acting as oxi­dizer. Life is not only specific in its adjustments:  it is resourceful,, inventive, and can achieve deep changes by what appear to be small physical modifications. And in all probability the first of all bloods, chlorophyll, will also be the last to persist when the world is old and dying.
Both plants and animals eventually invaded the dry, barren land. Soon the earth's surface teemed with count­less creatures that had adapted themselves to new conditions. The constant process of adaptation resulted in a steadv in­crease in the complexity of life forms, but the general goal of this complexity was a true economy of function. The same feats could be accomplished more easily, more smooth­ly. We know, looking backwards, how smooth, compara­tively, is the operation of the human body, the pinnacle of past: biological evolution along certain lines. It has lost chlorophyll, still possessed by plants ; it no longer enjoys immortality, which the single-celled creatures still bear ; it suffers spiritual agonies of which other creatures seem to be incapable ; it is weaker than most comparable wild beasts. Yet these sacrifices have been made in order to gain advantages otherwise unattainable. Man thinks, con­structs tools and changes the surface of the earth. He analyzes his position now, the story of past creation and its probabilities in the future. He moralizes. In some way, these achievements represent an economy, and increased efficiency of the energy exchanges involved in life, over the condition of early living creatures.
The progress of evolution is one aspect of the adjust­ment of life to its organic environment                                                      

 4.    The Adjustments of Life.

Evolution was itself assisted by certain specific adjust­ments of living things ; for instance the migrations of various creatures. Everyone is famiiliar with.the arrival of birds in the spring to our northern, countryside, their noisy and joyful life throughout the summer  and their departure in the fall when the leaves are turning russet and gold — in some cases, so early in the season, that the coun­try is still warm and green and the food plentiful. These bird flights range from travel between neighbouring coun­ties to the 11,000 mile span, performed twice yearly, of the Arctic Tern, and the 500 mile nonstop journey of the little hummingbird; across the Gulf of Mexico.
No one knows the origin of the migratory instinct in birds. Generally, the flights seem related to seasonal changes that influence food abundance, comfort, and the
sexual life ; but certain details are inconsistent, like the departure southwards of some species as early as July, be­fore the climate changes or food becomes scarcer. The wayfinding of birds also remains inexplicable. Topogra­phical signposts might assist the species which fly over the
land by day -- since the eyesight of birds is exceptional -but what about the species that travel by night or across hundreds of miles of ocean ? 
As remarkable as are bird migrations, the long jour­neys undertaken, by eels to their breeding places are in some respects even more astonishing since there can be no phy­sical milestones, no familiar topography in the depths of the sea by which these creatures are guided. Yet the voya­ge of the eels is unerring along a route established through ages of repetition. For long, nothing was known about the breeding habits of eels ; only fully developed eels could be seen in the rivers of Europe and America. Where did they spawn ? What was the location of the newborn creature ? Why were spawning grounds never discovered even in the waters where the developed eel was most abundant ?   At length the weird truth was discovered.

Seized by the urge to reproduce, the European eels pour out of the mouths of their rivers by the millions and swim  out  into  the Atlantic.  During the journey, their generative organs swell and reach maturity.   For months the eels swim, without guide-posts, except: a deep sense of orientation which we cannot yet explain in terms of physiology or physics.   Finally, they   reach   a   region   near the  Bermudas ; and the northern boundaries of the Sargasso Sea. Here the spawning takes place.   Billions of eggs are fertilized  which develop into the eel fry.  What happens to the parents after the orgy of reproduction is not known. They disappear.  And the young eels, after a long period  of growth, return to Europe, aided by the strong currents of the Gulf Stream.    In their millions they reinvade the  rivers  and estuaries left by their  parents.   But one day  they will mature ; they will become restless for the deeper waters of the Atlantic ; and they too, fired by the generative instinct, will seek the same regions near the Sargasso I where they were spawned.   The American eel swims to a  spawning ground close to that of its European cousin, but its journey is only one fourth to one fifth as long.10 The eel, as well as the bird, is in some manner polarized to its environment.    Some think the faculty in birds is related to the earth's magnetic field ; and the fact that pigeons  released near powerful   radio   stations   are   con­fused and  find it difficult to orient themselves is adduced  in support.    Other evidence indicates that the explanation  may be less obvious. For one thing, terrestrial lines of force  change their direction over short   periods   and   criss-cross many times the longer routes of birds and eels. Migratory creatures must take their bearings on a constant rather than a shifting factor.  Whatever the tropism, whether to magnetic lines of force or other directional agents, it requires a physiologic mechanism which may be the involunitary muscle fibers.    It is evident that no ordinary sensory faculty is involved. The polarisation no doubt arises from the deepest aspects of being And such migrations are  found amongst  numerous other creatures : whales,


turtles, lemmings, certain  insects, and salmon and  shad, and eared seals.
In addition to this type of orientation, which regu­lates the food, the periods of the sexual life, and adjust­ments to climatic changes, there exist many other types, through which animals are guided., The cat, dog and horse are frequently able to find their way back home from great distances over paths they have never taken before. A bee transported, half a mile from its hive in a covered box will, upon its release, regain its hive — it must find its own hive as it would be torn to pieces by the infuriated bees of a strange colony. Man himself is occasionally gifted with a " sense of direction " to guide him where the ordinary fellow would be lost, and it is interesting that this gift occurs most commonly amongst people in intimate contact with nature, like the American Indians.
Certain of the awarenesses underlying orientation are so sensitive and developed that the activities of the crea­ture appear to us to be highly intelligent. The intelli­gence displayed seems to be different from the deliberate, conscious rationalization of human beings. The social insects are the outstanding examples of this class. Fabre has immortalized the indefatigable ingenuity of the ant. More recently, however, entomologists like Marais have shown that the termite is equally ingenious.
Each termite is subordinated to the exigencies of the whole colony, exactly as individual cells of the human body, despite their separate existence, work for the good of the whole being. The termitary is revealed as a com­plex organization undergoing constant maintenance and repair at the hands of the constituent "cells," the termites proper, which likewise protect the colony against invasion. And the total effort is integrated and made " conscious ", as it were, by the queen termite sitting in her chamber in the depths of the termitary, which she can never leave : just as the human brain distributes its orders from the dark cavern of the skull. If the queen is destroyed, the colony is at once smitten by confusion and finally chaos ; and unless another queen is soon found to take her place, the  


community disintegrates. Some species of termites orient their  structures with respect to the compass points, recalling the mysterious insect, the telephore, which always faces west during the mating season. It is extraordinary that the work of the termitary is undertaken by utterly blind termites—they have no visual organs — whose instructions are issued by a queen possessed of sight but unable to make use of it from her buried, central prison. Yet in some fashion these insects are perfectly oriented to their environment and can meet the problems arising from it.
Beebe describes the extraordinary instinctive behaviour of the turtles on a lone Pacific island hundreds of miles from any other land, with a small beach on one side and the rest of the island mountainous. He went to the beach one evening, when the turtles were laying their eggs. With lighted lantern, he observed one enormous mother turtle during her egg laying session. She appeared to be entirely oblivious to him, as her front part was evidently asleep while, with her hind legs, she scooped out a deep round hole in the sand, each foot alternating with the other in a circular movement that scooped out the sand. At the same time, the walls of the hole were kept from sliding in by moisture sprayed out from inside her — and this moisture, Beebe felt certain, was not urine. In other words, her rear section was busy carrying on a function of great complexity, motivated entirely by instinct, while the other end was oblivious to everything. Beebe points out how remarkable is this behaviour in the light of the fact that no turtle can turn sufficiently to have the slightest idea of what its hind quarters look like ; yet, with its rear flip­pers, it scoops out a perfect circular hole. And, the hole filled, the mother wandered away into the sea and the first waves of the rising tide washed the sand smooth. Another turtle had a large piece missing from one of its dig­ging flippers ; the other flipper filed in the breach by doing more than its half of the work ; so that the finished hole was as smooth and circular as those of the other turtles.

This, Beebe thought, looked like more than just mechani­cal compensation.12
But   no   doubt   the   most   extraordinary   of   specific orientations   appear   in   man.     Indefinitely, they manifest as  the  various   moral,  religious  and  esthetic perceptions. Concretely, they manifest as strange awarenesses for which man evidently does not employ his usual sensory  faculties. These awarenesses have been strongly impugned ever since science assumed its present role of importance  in modern thought.   Telepathy, clairvoyance,  foresight, psychometry, dowsing, have constantly enjoyed a repute at large which has  been   questioned   by  science.    Perhaps   this   is   due principally to the  fact that until recently science  has not evolved  a  methodology   suitable   to   the  study  of  these awarenesses. Hence, great credit is due to  Prof. J. B Rhine13 for his long series of carefully controlled experi­ments with telepathy and clairvoyance, a long enough series to permit of serious statistical evaluation. He has found in his work that the chance ratio can be significantly exceeded.  On the basis of this alone it would  be neces­sary to  accept these awarenesses, called by him extra­sensory, as a reality.  Hence  to  the  various  electrical, mechanical and chemical aspects of the human being objec­tive science is now obliged to add another aspect, intangi­ble, obscure, difficult to control and elicit; but nevertheless real —the  extrasensory  aspect.  More will be said of this later.    For the present it is mentioned as  a  faculty for subconscious orientation  in  man comparable   to   the orientations in animals already described. All life seems to share in common something of this faculty.As yet, the mechanism of these biological phenomena eludes us. Whether it be the journey of the eels ; or the migratory flight of birds ; or the community labors of the termites under the leadership of their queen ; or the restless forebodings of our domesticated animals like the dog and the horse ; or the unerring instinct directing certain digger wasps where to sting the tarantula to paralyze it so that it may be stored away, living but immovable, as food for the wasp
larvae ; or the obscure efforts at adaptation which

have developed some 10,000 000 insect species or whether it be the extrasensory faculties amongst men, we knew little about the facts except that they occur and are difficult to fit into a strictly mechanistic description of creation. They do show, however, that living behaviour is not haphazard. Having developed out of the earth, life nevertheless remains a part of it. We are struck by the essential oneness of geologic and biologic development, a harmony between the two which enables living creatures to keep in touch with the inorganic world that supports them. Similarly the earth is united with the larger uni­verse in which it hangs. The whole betrays the purpose-fulness of a single organism and vice versa.
Iife is peculiarly tailored to its environment. Living creatures over the earth like a well-fitted garment, not like a drape thrown carelessly about it. Again and again life is related to the inanimate earth by a host of instincts and unconscious awarenesses. Here is a profound mystery of nature which we must strive to clarify.

5.    Dowsing.

Although these biological awarenesses to environment manifest variously, they represent an integrated activity of all life : the apparent multiplicity results from the many conditions to which life must adapt itself.   If we examine one of these awarenesses we are soon struck by the unity underlying them all.
A curious faculty evidently not dependent on sensory perception is Dowsing. Dowsing has been practised for centuries. Some dowsers appear to have been remarkably successful, and still are, whereas others were doubtless imposters. Early dowsers believed that the divining rod, carried in the hand over a subterranean watercourse, dipped and wobbled of its own accord to indicate the. presence of water. The lack of scientific method soon surrounded the art of dowsing with mystery . Much the same bewilder­ment has accreted about other obscure faculties such as telepathy, clairvoyance, prophecy; but the latter were in

general hard to assess by direct comparison with facts, whereas a good dowser could always be vindicated by dig­ging and unearthing water .Yet the efforts of the best dowsers were not sufficient to offset the discredit smeared on the art by charlatans.
For centuries men inquired seriously : What makes the divining rod act ? With the advent of science the ques­tion was reformulated : Is there anything at all in dow­sing, or does the whole thing rise out of the psyche of the dowser, with no more than a chance relation to reality ?
Recently two British scientists, J. C. Maby and T. B. Franklin, have finally solved the problem. They have established the scientific foundation of dowsing,13 just as Newton laid the foundation of optics and gravitation, Dalton of the atomic theory, Darwin of evolution, Min­kowski and Einstein of what has become the new non-Euclidean concepts of space and time, J. B. Rhine of tele­pathy, clairvoyance and other extrasensory faculties ; and so on. But the importance of this study of dowsing is enhanced by its relation to other phenomena, thus far not integrated, upon which it throws extraordinary light. Hence, it is necessary to examine the conclusions of these two Britishers, one a physiologist and the other a mathe­matical physicist.
Dowsing10 is the art of taking in the hands a stick, preferably forked, and walking slowly over  ground in search of subterranean watercourses and other objects. When the dowser passes, for instance, over water, the stick, or divining rod, is supposed to dip, gyrate; and in extreme cases leap out of the hands. Even amateurs handling the rod agree on the sensation of the rod's mov­ing of its own accord without any conscious manipulation. Maby and Franklin made hundreds of tests with profes­sional dowsers* and with laymen who had had no previous experience, and they agreed on this point. It is impor­tant to note that these tests were "blind" — that is, the location of known subterranean water was not revealed until after the dowser had given his reaction. This of course was done to avoid suggestion.    At least in the case

of expert dowsers, the results were extraordinarily accurate and far exceeding any conceivable chance figure. It was also possible in these investigations to go over the dowser's ground with special mechanical detectors sensitive to the rays responsible for the dowsing effect, and the. dowser's results were amply confirmed. A great many variables entered into the work : time of day, orientation of dowser with respect to the underground object, whether, physio­logical state of the dowser himself. However, in general the reality of the dowsing effect was proved.
Second, Maby and Franklin found that subterranean water, as well as other objects like! clay beds, actually gave off radiation possessing a characteristic field pattern.17 To this held the divining rod reacted. By prolonged work with dowsers and mechanical (electrical) devices, the field patterns were determined for horizontal, and vertical ex­tension. Thus it appeared that an object of limited length with respect to width gave off radiation that surrounded it concentrically like standing waves, and the dowser ap­proaching the object passed through alternate areas of effect and no-effect (positive and negative phases). Elon­gated objects such as streams or underground pipelines were followed on each side by similar alternating bands of standing waves running parallel to the length. Other field characteristics were discovered which need not be mentioned here, excepting one : Under certain conditions the alternating positive and negative bands reversed with respect to each other, the positive becoming negative, and vice versa. A change in the dowser's orientation also pro­duced this shift, which is described as a polar reversal.
Thus the basic contention of dowsers was scientifically substantiated : That the presence of an invisible, under­ground object could be detected by the reactions of a divi­ning rod held in the hand.
But exactly how did the reaction occur ?
In the first place, Maby and Franklin found that the dowsing reaction, is not a function of the divining rod but of the dowser's muscles. As they point out, this had been correctly surmised by Kircher as long ago as 1641,

but their credit is in irrefutably proving this to be the cor­rect explanation. Briefly : A dowser holding the rod before him brings into play certain muscles whose tension depends on the position of the grasp and on the amount of strength employed in maintaining the separation of the arms of a forked rod. This muscle tension is kept uni­form by the dowser as he prospects across a field. The nature of the radiation involved in dowsing is such that it lessens muscle tonus as at least one of its physiological effects. Hence, when the dowser enters the radiation field, his muscle tonus is lowered-i.e., his muscular strength is actually weakened. His attempt to maintain the position of his arms and the rod causes him to exert more strength and results in the apparent slipping and swaying of the rod. And as his physiological response to the dowsing radiation and his efforts at adjustment are entirely subconscious, he erroneously attributes the gyrations to the rod itself, not realizing that all the rod does is make visible his own physiological  reaction. This was amply proved by the numerous tests in which the rod was carried by mechanical means over  the positive dowsing areas, but with negative results : whereas the same rod held by a good dowser invariably dipped to indicate the reaction.
Careful study disclosed that the dowsing rays were dual in character, consisting of swift corpuscles on the one hand and of genuine radiation of a Hertzian nature on the other.19 The latter manifested the effects always asso­ciated with wave phenomena : interference, refraction, polarization, etc. In general the Hertzian rays were found to be the most important in dowsing. Since they possessed great penetration, they produced strong effects far away from the source ; whereas the corpuscular rays, active at close quarters, had weak penetration in air (in common with most corpuscular rays excepting cosmic rays) and became negligible at relatively close distances to the source. And, finally, the weight of evidence suggested strongly that all types of dowsing radiation might be secondary emissions of material under the impact of cos­mic rays.    It was thus found that any body of water or

metallic object might be a powerful source of corpuscular
or Hertzian rays emitted under the primary stimulation of cosmic rays, and that the whole subject of dowsing radiation was thus extended from its natural occurrence in the countryside, into the city, where man, building his civilisation of metals, has placed innumerable potential sources of'dowsing radiation.
Since the dowsing effect is a physiological reflex and since it evidently takes place whether a person is aware of it or not (like the circulation of the blood, digestion, endocrine secretion and other profound bodily functions),  the question naturally arises : What is the effect on health of dowsing rays, which may exist in innumerable localities, in town or country, wherever there are subterranean watercourses, metal veins and objects, etc. ? Can any correlation be made between the incidence of illness and such localities ?
Here also Maby and Franklin's evidence is extreme­ly important.20 In general, they find that cancer, rheuma­tism, arthitis, colds, asthma, tuberculosis, certain gastric complaints, are exacerbated  and when the patient lives over sources of dowsing rays, and that probably these diseases are awakened in cases where predisposition happens to exist .The actual physiology involved is the increased tissue ionization caused by the impact of dowsing rays. Short exposure and temporary ionization may prove stimulating rather than harmful ; but prolonged exposure, as in the case of persons living  over positive dowsing areas, produces sufficient ionization to result in chemical effects that precipitate disease. Comparable are the effects of high frequency radiation like X-ray, radium, ultra-violet, in which cases the intensity cf tissue ionization increases with  the  frequency.    Much evidence  exists  that sensitive
* Sir Wm. Bragg has shown that metals exposed to X-radiation of mixed fr quencies emit secondary radiation of a frequency characteristic for each metal; and the basis of X-rays is the ability of metals to emit secondarily under the impact of a swift electronic stream. These fami­liar instances are merely adduced to substantiate the theoretical explana­tion of  dowsing  rays.

persons sleep badly over streams or mineral veins, and that even the metal springs or frames of a bed may give rise to radiation fields which disturb the sleeper and, in some cases, over prolonged exposures, make him ill (since he is close enough to the source to feel not only the long range Hertzian rays but also the corpuscular rays). In Germany; experiments conducted with mice showed that the incidence of cancer was greatly increased when the animals were exposed either to natural dowsing fields or to fields artificially produced by a Hertzian oscillator.
Hence the medical importance of dowsing fields can
not be over-estimated. Nor can the philosophical impor
tance. For everyone passes through such fields constant-
ly, and, as already explained, the fields occur unexpectedly
as the result of secondary radiation of metals, which
figure so prominently in our civilized life. It seems that
as we walk about, our bodies are unceasingly responding,
below the threshold of consciousness, to a multitude of
dynamic factors. Perhaps a certain measure of such res-
ponse is all in the day's work for most individuals ; but
when exposure and, hence, reaction are prolonged the
body may be unable to adjust itself — for instance, to re­
pair the effects of excess tissue ionization as rapidly as
they occur. And the weakest point then breaks down ; the
specific character of the illness perhaps depending upen the
constitutional idiosyncrasy. 
The phenomena of dowsing emerge as a marvellous instance of the biological adjustments already pointed out. It is also possible that whereas man with his conscious, reasoning mind is unable to tab the reactions at their source and without circuitous techniques, animals, on the other hand, free from inhibitions, are doubtless more directly guided by reactions of this type. The migration and other extraordinary habits of wild life may have their origin in obscure dynamic stimuli to which the animal is amenable.
We may logically assume that local geographical areas give forth a characteristic dynamic pattern which the autonomic of animals recognizes and use as guides in


the various migrations. Larger areas may integrate into still more general dynamic patterns. So that it is sugges­tive to picture an army of migrating wildlife as a vast autonomic organism responding to and following the dyna­mic impulses arising from the earth, much as an airplane feels along the length of a radio beam. This assumption is certainly safer than to suppose birds, for instance, in their farflung flights, able to utilize for orientation the shifting patterns of the earth's magnetic fields, which streams in so many directions over different points of the earth's surface. The fact that birds sometimes fly at great altitudes would not remove them from the influence of rays of the dowsing class which Maby and Franklin have shown to extend upwards with no apparent decrease in in­tensity. And we have seen how wide-spread are the source capable of stimulating these biological reactions.
This is the picture drawn — and established as an unsuspected reality — by Maby and Franklin. Their work is a classic. It ties together many fields hitherto uncoordinated as will be shown below.

6.    The Work of Abrams.

The type of physiological reaction involved in dow­sing, and so long regarded with superstition and incre­dulity is evidently widespread in nature, both amongst animal and men. It has taken the ingenuity of man to exteriorize, through such devices as the divining rod, im­perceptible processes going on within him. As has been seen , Maby and Franklin have securely founded the science of dowsing (as against the art). Another approach to physiological reflexes of the dowsing type has been made by a few physicians seeking to elucidate certain obscure dynamic body effects, not immediately linked to usual elec­trical effects like the psycho-galvanic reflex, other variations in skin potential, and, more recently, the evidence of the electrocardiograph, and the electroencephalograph. But the medical approach tangled up with considerations of ethics, orthodoxy and charlatanism, has had a stiffer—though


briefer—struggle than the evolution of dowsing to its present accepted status. The bestknown medical exponent was, of course, Albert Abrams, who devised the "magic box " of still notorious odor. Nevertheless, much has happened since Abrams' experiments (which began, around the outbreak of World War I ) to show that, despite his mistakes and what seemed like uncontrollable commercialism, he had stumbled on profoundly significant biological and physical phenomena.
What Abrams labored to prove was that the living human body could be utilized as the detector for certain radiations emitted by biological material as well by in­organic substances. The biological radiations of human beings tended to conform to certain patterns during health. Disease at once changed these patterns and it was by observing these departures from normal that Abrams developed a system of diagnosis independent of the usual pathological findings. Abrams maintained that specific energies were emitted by different diseases, and that the pre­sence  of the abnormal energy could be detected long before the appearance of tissue pathology or even dysfunction. He maintained also that the correction of theses energy derangements removed the cause of disease, and that sec­ondary effects such as pathology, infective agents ,etc would then disappear, since they could only thrive where the soil was propitious for them — i.e., in tissue suffering from dynamic disturbances.21 Unfortunately, Abrams pushed his claims beyond the point where his technique was able to support them. The investigation of the AMA, undertaken by The\ Scientific American, failed to obtain re­liable and consistent evidence from the Abrams proponents. The work was branded as fraudulent and has had to struggle ever since against this stigma.
Actually, Abrams was right in many of his observa­tions, as Maby and Franklin justly concede ;22 but many of  his interpretations of fact betray a runaway imagination and a loose application of the physical principles then known.
As a " detector " for the energies Abrams used a human being in good health (the " subject ") ; just as dow­sing rays are detected by an operator holding the divining

rod. But whereas the dowser utilizes a generalized reflex which he chooses to exteriorize by means of the hands,— a convenient and controllable method,—Abrams' subject demonstrated a selective, localized reflex that could be manifested only by a specific technique. When the subject was connected (at the forehead) to different kinds of diseased tissue (i.e., to patients suffering from different diseases) certain patches of the abdomen became "dull" under percussion as against the normal more resonant, ab­dominal note. Each of these dull areas corresponded to a specific diseased state. Abrams soon found that a tuner could be interposed between the patient and the subject, giving sharper areas and only one area at a time, provided of course the tuner was of the variable type which could be adjusted to resonate to the periods of the ehfferent ener­gies. As the subject was connected to the apparatus at the forehead and stood on earthed metallic plates, he was, in effect, placed in an energy current which in its passage to earth elicited the various selective abdominal reflexes ; much like the response of the dowser, with his generalized reflex, to the field of dowsing rays. So that if we accept dowsing phenomena as factual there is nothing intrinsi­cally anomalous in the situation of Abrams' subject.
Th undoing of Abrams was the very apparatus he invented .Instead of deliberately acknowledging inductance and capacity as the basis of all tuned circuit effects, he evolved the theory that his disease energies could be tuned in by means of "ohms '': i.e. cancer energy would pass only through a 50 ohm coil, tuberculosis energy a 42 ohm coil, streptococcus 60 ohms, ard so on. He even wound his coils noninductively, considering this ample proof that his concept was right, since he continued to get results. However, he ignored certain high frequency characteristics, perhaps because he did not appreciate the fact that his ener­gies were of extraordinarily high frequency indeed (as also, by the way, are the dowsing Hertzian oscillations). A simple resistance in the path of a low frequency current has no appreciable tuning eftect. But beyond a certain point, increase of frequency rapidly increases the inductive

effect of even a short length of straight wire.    Moreover, the  resistance  characteristics   which  he  stated so simply differ for high frequences from the resistance characteristics of low frequencies or  direct currents, which tend to flow  through the whole cross section of the conductor, whereas high   frequencies pass only alongs  the surface; ("skin effect").  And the frequencies of Abrams' disease radiations are so high th:at the inductive effect of his resistance coils ( notwithstanding their "noninductive winding ) becomes the cardinal tuning factor of the circuit, combined with the capacity effect of the various circuit elements. Indeed,as was shown by Colson,23 the resistance  of the| Abrams  coils seriously  interferes with the weak energy currents,  and the same inductive-capacity  value   obtained with coils in which the resistance is deliberatel kept to a minimum at once sharpen the  reactions by increasing the amount of energy flowing  in the circuit, make whole setup more selective,  and remove other fallacies, inherent in the original Abrams device—the   derisively called " magic box."   It is no wonder that consistent results could not be  obtained before serious  investigators of the tech­nique.  The wonder is that despite his crudities of technique , Abrams was able to discover so much that was funda­mental and that has since been confirmed in other ways. It is  fair to mention at this point that perhaps the earliest scientific observation  of  the abdominal reflex was made by Dr. George Starr White near the end of the last century.24 It is doubtless from White that Abrams obtain- ed the clues leading to the discovery of disease  energies and their detection by means of an instrumental tuner in conjunction with a subject; but Abrams was not always  unequivocal in stating his indebtedness to White.
White claimed to be able to detect an aura about living creatures. The aura gave him a visual sensation of color, and the color changed according to the emotional state of the individual as well as the state of his health. Soon White noticed that the aura " streamers " (as he called them) were deflected in different directions accord­ing to whether the subject faced north; or south, and east


or west. As he was experimenting at that time with vibrat­ing air columns which he would play over his patient's body, he stumbled upon a curious phenomenon: The sound of such an air column, having as one of its closed sides the abdomen of a person,  gave a different note when the
subject faced north or south from the note in the east or west positions — corresponding to White's observations on the aura.
This appears to have been a basic phenomenon. It has been corroborated by many individuals in different ways. For instance, Maby and Franklin (see last section) show that the kind of dowsing effect, and the field pattern of dowsing rays, depend upon the orientation of the operator to the source of the rays and on the orientation of the latter to the magnetic flux of the earth. Moreover, Abrams20 found that his subject, who was grounded, must always face west for best elicitation of the abdominal reflexes under percussion, and for this observation he was indebt­ed to White's discovery concerning the change in note pro­duce by orientation. The same conclusion as Abrams was reached somewhat later by a very much more scienti­fic investigator, Wm. E. Boyd of Glasgow (to whose work reference will shortly be made). When we remember that all animal migrations—and they are widespread — de­pend on some unknown faculty of orientation, it does not seem difficult to accept the orientation phenomenon of White.*There is no reason why a reflex change in the tissues of the abdominal wall, showing under percussion as a change in note, should not occur as readily as the weakening of   nuscle tonus in a strong dowsing field.    The full..

 *Later more careful determinationss indicate that maximum abdo­minal resonance does not occur exactly at the geographical or magnetic west. In New York City ,the actual point, is about 12 degrees counter­clockwise from the magnetic west; other regions of the country have been checked. This certainly frees the orientation reflex from depend­ence on magnetic factors, and is further indication that animal migra­tions may be unrelated to terrestrial magnetic lines of force. This pro­blem is part of the research of the Foundation for Homoeopathic Research, but much of the material is not yet ready for publication


importance of  White's disovery will become more  appa­rent later in this essay.
Another of White's contributions is the discover y that colored light excites the abdominal reflex. Specifically, he found that patients with profound toxemias did not give the orientation reflex. However, if they were exposed to various colored lights, a color could be found which res­tored the reflex so long as the patient remained under exposure to it. As the occurrence of the orientation re­flex was a constant phenomenon in health but disappeared during disease, he reasoned that the light restoring the reflex must have some sort of curative relation to the patient. In this he claims to have been correct, for he has evolved a color therapy in which the reflex-restoration is the indicator of the color with which to irradiate the patient therapeutically. When the patient is cured, he once again spontaneously gives the orientation reflex. These original and, it must be confessed, astute observations were taken up with modification by Abrams, who insisted that certain disease energies, tuned in and recorded by his ins­trument in conjunction with a "subject," could be enhan­ced or dissipated by certain colors. But Abram use of color was in a different direction from White's, as was in­deed natural,considering the difference in technique. 
White also appears to  have been the first to conduct along a wire body energy of   the   type Abrams  made first  famous and then notorious. But White was content  merely to show  that  the  energy was capable of conduction, even over long distances, along a length of wet cord or aluminum wire : he does not seem to have  appre­ciated the existence of energy of varying frequency charcteristics capable of analysis into its components by means of a tuned circuit.   The conception of tuning and the  elabo­ration of diagnosis based wholly on such instrumental  sit­tings  belong to Abrams.   They remain  an  amazing dis­covery, despite the   errors and the eventual vilification poured on the man.  
From these  facts  it  is  clear  that living beings--at any rate, human beings — not only react to all sorts of


external stimuli like dowsing rays , certain directional magnetic field of  the earth, and perhaps other  influences, but they can react specifically to some sort of biological energy associated with ill health.    In fact, according to both White and Abrarms and verified by ourselves, the abdominal reflex on percussion is also elicited by the presence of nearby persons.   This  means that every individual  is constantly experiencing unconscious  activities of his physiology against the  environment.    The concept of biological organism as a hermetically contained unit, giving out what it does not need and taking in to meet its requirements,  must be altered. Each organism is instead bathed in at least the physical effects of its milieu, just as a jellyfish, while preserving its  integrity as a creature, is  permeated by the currents of seawater,with which, in a sense, it is continuous. And since all objects give off radiation with a potential biological effect, radiation which in the case of dowsing rays,  for in   tance, is able to penetrate great distances, the whole problem of migration and other biological orientations becomes clearer. These radiations are like signposts, directions scattered over the earth. And living; creatures are guided by them, not consciously, but by the operation of hidden physiological activities.

    7.    Boyd and the  Dynamis.

Left to itself, the work of Abrarms might easily have been forgotten. Whenever his exponents attempted to demonstrate the technique, they ran into inconsistencies and contradictions. The same patient, or the same blood specimen gave different diagnoses in the, hands of differ­ent operatators who were unacquainted with the patient's clinical history. For this, technical crudity was the most responsible factor. A delicate effect was under detection with crude, inadequate apparatus, and no effort was appa­rently made to isolate the phenomena themselves from sources of interference. As has been mentioned, this led an AMA investigation and the eventual discrediting of
the whole movement in America.

However, in Great Britain the problem was approach­ed by a man who was thoroughly grounded in physics, radio and electricity. This man was Dr.Wm.E. Boyd of Glasgow,25 whose work is as much a classic as the labors of Maby and Franklin described above.*
At once, Boyd recognized that a tuning circuit for Abrams' energies must operate by virtue of its inductance and capacity effects instead of its resistance. He construc­ted a variable inductance coil with continuous contact in place of the spaced taps of Abrams' tuner. Later, this
circuit was refined and elaborated, becoming an instrument  of precision called the Emanometer.  
The instrument consisted of three sections connected  in series. First, the patient's specimen was inserted in a movable trolley whose distance from a fixed receiving plate  could be varied at will. A uniform opening in the speci­men carriage allowed energy to radiate across in airgap to the receiving plate. The distance to which the speci­men could be withdrawn from the receiving plate before the energy ceased to record gave the intensity of the energy under analysis. Drugs were inserted into a recep­tacle so situated that the field of drug energy components occupied the same space as the field of the specimen : in this way the two could interact. It was found that the glass vials were quite transparent to the drug energies, just as glass is transparent to visible light, hence the drugs were amply protected from contamination or deterioration, the vial being merely inserted into the apparatus. This part of the circuit measured energy strengths and allowed interference to take place between specimen and drug com­ponents. Second, in series with the fixed plate of the air-gap were two parallel circuits. One arm consisted of a variable induction coil in series with a variable condenser ; the other arm consisted of a single variable condenser of

* Due credit is given both Boyd and Abrams by these authors, who seem to recognize the close relationship of these various phenomena.
t Detuning of the circuit  a result of capacity effects resulting from changes in the distance between the airgap plates was elmiuated by  a special arrangement of the gap elements.

small value ; and a special switching arrangement permitted these two arms to be connected in parallel after each had been separately tuned, giving a marked increase in selecti­vity. The inductance was calibrated in millimeters of coil length, the condenser scales covered 180 degrees, each degree being further subdivided into 60 minutes by means of a micrometer dial. It can be appreciated how discri­minating was the arrangement. This part of the circuit offered one means of tuning the energies. Thence a lead connected to the forehead of the subject, who was the third and last circuit component. He functioned as detector, through the occurrence of the abdominal reflexes under percussion, and in addition as a vernier tuner to the ins­trumental circuit by virtue of the fact that different ener­gies produced entirely distinct areas of abdominal dullness, thus confirming, in general, Abrams' findings in this res­pect. The standard of detection was thus the reading of the inductance and capacity values plus the location of the dull areas on the subject. The importance of the subject as auxiliary tuner can be estimated from the fact that the identical Emanometer setting will sometimes permit seve­ral areas — representing distinct energy components — to record on the abdomen ; without the subject they could scarcely be differentiated.
A further refinement of the Emanometer was the shielding which Boyd early found to be necessary for ex­cluding irrelevant and interfering factors. In its final form, the shielding surrounded each circuit section — air-gap, tuner, and lead, from tuner to subject — and the sub­ject himself stood in a case of closely woven phosphor bronze mesh. All shielding was carefully earthed, as was the subject through standing on he metallic floor of his cage.
A strong source of interference was found to arise from handling the vials of drugs to be tested, or the patient's specimen, or insulated controls situated within the cage ,when the subject could be affected. Such irrelevant energies compounded with the energies under study, lead­ing to false results.    To eliminate such contamination,

Boyd found it necessary to sterilize the instrument with dry heat before use, to prepare sterile vials for the drugs and never to handle then except with sterile forceps, and to collect the specimens on sterile blotters  of standardized absorption. These precautions, while increasing the diffi­culties of technique, greatly added to the accuracy.
The general technical procedure was this : At the circuit input Boyd placed a specimen of blood ; at the out­put he connected a health individual who stood on ground­ed metallic plates — the "subject." Then he proceeded to observe the occurrence of the dull abdominal areas elicited on percussion. He found that when the subject faced west, his abdomen became uniformly resonant  to per­cussion, and that the dull areas could be easy defined by contrast. Some of his areas agreed with Abrams'; but as Boyd's tuner was much more selective, the number of areas increased greatly over those originally discovered by Abrams. There were interesting relationship, between certain areas and clinical states. However, Boyd' s method never claimed to be diagnostic of disease, as did Abrams', but merely gave a picture of the dynamic state of the patient without necessary reference to orthodox termino­logy. Nevertheless, Boyd discovered that certain energies usually appeared in case of inflammation ; others were associated with infection ; others with proliferation ; some with respiratory condition ; digestive, nervous, genitouri­nary and other disturbances of organ-systems. There was enough clinical correspondence to give him a general pic­ture of the patient's condition from the type of energy detected in the patient's blood.
The quantitative aspects of this research proved extraordinarily fascinating .A patient presenting himself for treatment gave relatively high intensities (as measured on the Emanometer*) of  the energies relevant to this con­dition. The whole gamut of energies could be detected in any specimen,  but  their  intensity—their strength — was...

* It must be remembered that the units by which the energies are identified and measured are purely  arbitrary and refer exclusively to the




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The patients are just about as anxious as the Arsenicum patients — in fact all these anginous patients are anxious — but instead of the intense chilliness of the Arsenic they are uncomfortable in heat and in a stuffy atmosphere. They are just about as restless, but instead of the pale, drawn appear­ance which you get in Arsenic, they tend to be rather flushed, and as a rule they are dark-haired, dark-complexioned people. They are rather underweight, in spite of the fact that they have always been pretty good livers and very often have an appetite above the average although they have not been putting on weight.    These cases respond exceedingly well to Iodine. Then there is yet another type of case in which instead of the complaint being of constriction it is of a progressive sensation of swelling in the heart region. It feels as if the heart gets bigger and bigger until it would finally burst, and this sensation of fullness spreads up into the neck.
This sensation of fullness and swelling is very much aggravated by lying down, when the patient feels as if he would nearly choke  and it is accompanied by very acute pain.The patients themselves are chilly and any draught of air increases their distress. 
In addition to the feeling of distension, they usually complain of more or less marked numbness, particularly of the left arm and hand, though very frequently there is numbness of the hand only without any involvement of the arm, and not infrequently they complain of numbness of the lower extremities too. As a rule the face and neck give you the impression of being some what congested; they do not have the pale, drawn, wrinkled Arsenicum appearance. And these cases respond well to Spongia. Another drug which you will find useful in a condition which is somewhat similar, though not an angina at all, but which you meet with in hysterical women. You will fail to find any cardiac lesion, but they will produce a symptom picture difficult to distinguish from a true anginous attack. They have the very marked stabbing, radiating pains, and often an intense hyperesthesia of the chest wall. They are very depressed, frightened, and intensely irritable. They are sensitive to heat, and their distress is aggravated by any move­ment. In addition to the stabbing pains they have the anginous sense of constriction,  tightness, of the chest wall. These cases are usually associated with some kind of pelvic lesion, or a history of having had some gynaecological illness.
I have seen quite a number of these cases now in which an electro-cardiogram shows no lesion at all. And all the symptoms have cleared up entirely with Lilium tig. So you see when you are confronted with one of these very distressing conditions where you have to make a quick decision, it is fairly easy to individualize and get something which will give almost instantaneous relief.
- By Dr. Douglas M. Borland



Dr. McCrae thought the paper was a masterpiece. There was nothing in it to criticize, there were details of valuable help to everybody which were like the artist sharpening his pencil to produce some line of particular splendour which would make the picture complete. Most had pencils but they were blunt, and the homeopath would always be grateful for these amazingly useful hints.

Dr. John Paterson said that they had listened to a real clinical paper. There was not much which one could criticize, but one might add a little. With regard to the cardiac cases, Arsenic and Sulphur his experience was that Arsenic was often the acute of Sulphur and on  the mental side they were the exact opposite. One found that a Sulphur patient swung in an acute condition to Arsenic and Dr. Boland had brought out that point. He was interested in the question of Aconite acting in the first attack but not in the second. There had been many discussions about covering the totality of the symptoms and here was evidence that the homeopathic remedy could be prescribed on the mental symptoms which worked in the first instance but it did not cover the whole of the case. It was possible to prescribe homeopathically with­out covering the whole of the case, only covering a phase because obviously on the next occasion the pain was present but not the fear, the Aconite had removed one phase of the case — mental fear. Aconite came out very strongly in the air raids.   Another remedy was Natrum Mur.
He wondered if any orthodox practitioners were surprised that there was no mention of Digitalis but Digitalis was quite useful in these slightly relaxing hearts in homeopathic doses, not in the massive doses given in allopathic medicine.

Dr. Stonham said that the paper was excellent and the sort of paper which would appeal to the general practitioner, who was always coming up against acute cases. To have such cases so plainly stated with the drug indications for them was  valuable. There were one or two points he would like to mention with regard to Aconite which, as Dr. Borland had , was very useful in many cases.   The case which he did not mention was the acute pulmonary oedema. He had given. Aconite 30 in such cases and it quickly calmed the patient in that distressing and somewhat dangerous condition and he had found it valuable not only in the first case but also in cases when the attack has been repeated. Dr. Borland said he gave Laurocerasus in acute heart complaints. He had had an acute case with Cheyne-Stokes respiration, it looked as if the patient would die, he gave Hydrocyanic Acid and he recovered very nicely. Many people would substantiate the value of Dr. Borland's paper.

Dr. G. R. Mitchell said that a clinical paper was most useful. He wanted to criticize something Dr. Paterson said when he took the Aconite example as not prescribing on the totality. He would have thought it was an example of pres­cribing on that procedure because in the first case, on all the manifestations, Aconite was the drug, and it worked and on the second occasion there was a different totality, and the Aconite did not work. That was the way he would have re­garded the matter.

Dr. Hardy added her grateful thanks to Dr. Borland for his paper. With regard to medicines for heart complaints she agreed with Dr. Paterson that Digitalis 200, one dose, was very effective in the semi-chronic or chronic case of the right sided congestion, blue face and blue nails, but not in the acute patient. She also used mother tincture Crataegus for heart patients because it was specific for the cardiac muscle. An­other drug which was used in Russia was Adonis mother tinc­ture, five drops to a dose. ..the wonderful collection of details on which indications had been given and which were of the greatest possible value. The paper would require a great deal of study, so that these indi­cations could be taken for future use.
He was rather in favour of trying to keep the remedies which were very definitely specific for particular conditions because in cases where there was an emergency there was no time to seek for all the exact indications which might help, but he was rather surprised that Dr. Borland did not make more use of the Snake Poisons in heart cases because he must admit he would not be without Lachesis. If there was any suggestion of heart failure he would give Lachesis and would be surprised if it did not answer. There was one rather in­teresting point from the homeopathic point of view with regard to Snake Poisons and that was to think of the first thing which an individual felt when he was bitten by a snake, which was death, and when death threatened the patient ,the prescriber should think of the Snake Poisons. He mentioned this in a paper he read on Snake Poisons in Berlin just before the war and it attracted the attention of reporters who were pre­sent. In the Berliner Tageblatte there appeared in headlines, "When death threatens, think of the Snake Poisons."..

Dr. Alva Benjamin said that with regard to the collapse cases one would have thought that Dr. Borland would have mentioned Veratrum Album for cases of great coldness and excessive sweating. With regard to heart cases he had had a lot of help from Chamomilla, particularly when the pain was very severe. ..

Dr. W. Lees Templeton said that most of them felt that they had been back at school and he felt not only humbled but humiliated, for he must admit that he did not get such good results, possibly because one did not always get the symptoms. Most of the emergencies he saw were unable to give symptoms and one had to judge on appearances. He was glad, therefore, that Dr. Borland had elaborated on the ap­pearance of the patient, because that was important. With regard to drugs, he did not find Ant. Tart,  useful in heart cases because he believed the pathology was different. He thought Ant. Tart, had a pulmonary pathology, not cardiac. Carbo Veg. had a great and justifiable reputation as the "corpse reviver" and it did work when the appropriate symp­toms were present. Cold sweat he looked upon as a guiding symptom for Verat. Alb. and he had verified its value in collapse. He was sorry that Dr. Borland was not more speci­fic in his diagnoses, e.g. if pain was due to coronary thrombosis he doubted if the high potency alone would ease this parti­cular pain in a matter of minutes.
The wait with the patient for four or five hours for the second presentation was a serious matter when one was called out in the middle of the night, and like confinements many of these emergencies did occur at night. Why was this, he wondered?

                   Excerpt from :  The British  Homoeopathic  journal,   March   1946

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