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 A New Synthesis : Please continue
 
....low except in the case of energies associated with the patient's ailment. And as treatment went on and the patient progressed towards cure, the energies of abnor­mally high intensity diminished until eventually they reach­ed the low level of theoretical health. With this decrease in intensity came a disappearance not only of subjective symptoms but of pathology (where the disease had not advanced so far as to make this impossible). The point of great importance was that abnormally high energies were sometimes detectable in a patient who did not yet manifest recognizable symptoms. When observed over a period time, such persons were found to develop symp­toms of a type predictable from the dynamic disturbance. This suggested that it was the ( dynamic derangements in the body that precipitate symptoms, functional and patho­logical.   Abrams had made similar observations.
The picture of health and disease painted by Boyd's work looked something like this : Good health represented a certain dynamic distribution  associated  with  the  body. This dynamic state regulated   normal physiology.  As measured on the Emanometer *, the state  appeared specifi­cally as a low intensity of many energy components detect­able in blood.   In some fashion not known, certain compo­nents could greatly wax in intensity   When this happened, the directive influence of the  normal  energy complement was changed, with attendant  physiological  changes, and  symp­toms  appeared :   subjective, functional, and eventually pathological.  That this explanation was correct was sub­stantiated by the fact that if the abnormal energies were reduced by medication to the theoretical normal level, health returned in all cases where  the  patient's vitality was not....
 
  * It must be remembered that the units by which the energies are identified and measured are purely arbitrary and refer exclusively to the Emanometer circuit. As the exact nature of the energies is not known (for instance, whether they belong to the electromagnetic spectrum), it is impossible to give them electrical evaluations. Hence, the continuous inductance coil is calibrated in millimeters of actual coil length, the con­densers into180 degrees subdividing the semicircular arc through which the plates rotate, and the airgap in centimeters measuring the separation between the fixed and movable plates.
 
                                                                                      
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totally depleted. Of course, the arbiter for judging nor­mal and abnormal intensity levels was the Emanometer.* Boyd did not let the matter rest with the patient's diagnosis. If abnormal dynamic states preceded the phy­siological signs of illness, then a dynamic correction would be in order rather than a chemical or physiological. But how was this to be done ? The energies detected by the subject and tuned by the Emanometer did not appear to fit anywhere within the known electromagnetic spectrum. Any idea that they might be a cryptogenic biological radia­tion was dissipated by the discovery that all substances gave off these energies, and that when different substances were placed in the Emanometer circuit together with a speci­men, interference effects could be observed between the two such as are familiar to students of wave mechanic: It was also clear that on the basis of the intensity of this energy as radiated by different classes of materials, living things and finely subdivided inanimate matter-—colloidal, or highly diluted — ranked first, material in bulk or in coarse dispersion ranking next with much lower intensity readings. These findings gave Boyd his clue for remedy selec­tion. When a specimen analysed by the Emanometer gave an abnormal picture, or spectrum, drugs were added to the circuit singly until one was found which interfered with the specimen energies. And this interference thus be such that all the abnormal energies associated with the patient's illness were reduced in intensity to the ideal normal. When these conditions were fulfilled and the drug pres­cribed, clinical improvement followed. In addition to the abnormally high energies, Boyd found three which behaved inversely to the rest. These......
 
* In what follows, the energy  complements under consideration will be frequently referred to as "the dynamis," not including puiely electri­cal effects like  differences of potential,  static  charges,  changes in  tissue
 resistance, nerve and brain currents, etc. And the  word " physiology "
will be applied to the whole functioning organism as apart fron the dynamis which appears to give it form.
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..were of high intensity in healthy individuals but became weaker during illness.  The interference effect of the right drug on them was such that whereas the other energies were reduced in strength, these three were invariably in­creased. A drug covering the cancellation factors and not enhancing these three energies was much inferior to a drug which covered all the factors of enhancement and cancellation. Because of their characteristics, these three energies may be called " vital rates." They assume especial pro­minence in the selection of remedies on the Emanometer.The final technique worked out by Boyd is interesting in the light of his conclusions regarding body energies and their distribution in health and disease. A patient's speci­men was carefully examined and all abnormally intense energies noted, as well as any drop in the level of the vital energies. As the ideal blood picture should give a mini­mum reading of all excepting the vital energies, the next step was to find a drug which, when placed in the circuit together vith the specimen, had the necessary frequency relationship to correct, by interference, all the latter's energy abnormalities. Boyd found it most practical to test the enhancing power of the drugs on one of the vital energies, all drugs enhancing being held out for retesting against the two other vital energies. He almost always found that the drug giving maximum enhancement also, gave satisfactory reduction of the energies other than the "vital." For best results, however, careful measurement of reduction was essential, for Boyd also discovered that a drug which augmented an energy that should have been cancelled tended to produce, when given to the patient, an exacer­bation of the relevant symptoms proportionate to the amount of augmentation. After the patient took the medicine thus worked out by the Emanometer, his energy spectrum became radi­cally changed. He no longer gave an abnormal picture. It was as if he now possessed the energy distribution of a healthy person.  And during this period there was an abey....
              
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...ance or disappearance of symptoms and pathology. In lighter cases, one prescription often cured : the abnormal energy characteristics failed to return and the patient re­mained well. In more obstinate cases, after variable lapses of time, subsequent tests showed a gradual rise in the in­tensity of the energies originally found high but reduced by the drug, accompanied by a return of the old symptoms : the severity of relapse depending of course on the amount of tissue change still left in the body after the preceding period of repair and on the patient's vitality. Another prescription was now needed, either of the same or a differ­ent drug ; and this was determined by a second test simi­lar to the first. In all curable cases, a series of prescrip­tions finally neutralized the abnormal energy characteris­tics, all symptoms cleared up, and the patient was appa­rently well*
There is one other point of Emanometer technique which must be mentioned. In some ways it has more signi­ficance than any other phase of Boyd's approach. Whereas Abrams had found what he called a " vital rate " indica­ting the constructive body processes, Boyd found three. Abrams' rate (to use his own jargon) was " tuned in " by a coil having 49 ohms of resistance — a standard  value for everybody's vital rate. Boyd of course had three different settings on his inductance coil, one for each of his vital energies. But whereas two of these, energies al­ways tuned in on the same position of the coil, no matter whose the specimen, the third, called the V rate give 11 adjacent variations, depending on the person,  instead of a standard setting for all persons. That is, there were  11...

*
In presenting his work to an investigating orthodox medical com­mittee in Britain (the Horder Committee), Boyd arranged a series of blind tests capable of evaluation on a statistical basis. In this manner accidental success ratios could be compared with actual successes. The most rigorous of these trials, repeated at an interval of a few months, gave a 33,O00,0O0 to 1 ratio in favour of the reality of .the phenomena— sufficient to corroborate any purly orthodox experiment.. Controls were carefully kept by the investigating
committee.26                                                                  
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fundamental types of  V energies, each with a slightly diffe­rent tuning characteristic giving 1l closely spaced settings of the coil. Hence, each patient had to be grouped by deter­mining which was his type of V energy.The result of this was unexpected. To cause certain specific interference effects with a specimen's energies, the period of a drug's energies must be almost, although not quite, identical with the period of the specimen's. Boyd has shown that this slight variation exists. This approxi­mation of drug energy values to specimen's is such that the drug V energy registers at the same coil setting as the specimen's— drug and patient, that is, must belong to the same group. Still otherwise expressed : maximum sensi­tivity exists to a substance belonging to the same V classi­fication as the patient.* Let us consider what is implied in Boyd's findings. The average human being is continually adjusting his organism ( unconsciously, of course ) to outside  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  influences.Someofthese are relatively gross : minerals dissolved in the water he drinks, mineral deficiencies in his food, physical factors like temperature and humidity, particles suspended in the  atmosphere which be breathes into his lungs. In addition, we have found  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       that a human organism responds to obscure influences like dowsing fields, to effects from countless sources of radiation with different frequency characteristics, all apparently capable of eliciting various autonomic reflexes     Most of these condi....

* Some interesting relations between these groups have been observ­ed.27 In health , a person's group tends to remain constant. Chronic disease may move him out of his group, but usually into a group of a well-defned series. Groups 5, 8, 11 ; 1, 6, 10 ; 2 and 7. appear to con­stitute three series. In acute illness, however, the patient may change from one group to any of the others without seeming to follow a pattern. Pregnancy affects the group of the mother , and this change appears to be governed by the sex of the unborn child . Also, a boy's group is very often that of the mother's ; a daughter's takes after her father's. Thus it will  be seen that the V energy of Boyd's, giving the group, must repre­sent a deep and fundamental aspect of the integrated creature.
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                 ....tions we may regard as more or less normal :the organ­ism, having evolved in their midst, is prepared to absorb them without suffering. In fact, such agents, by repeatedly stimulating the various parts of the organism, may be necessary for optimum development, for exercising and maintaining the tone of manifold body states. There are few if any totally useless functions in nature, and these re­flexes are functions serving a purpose of their own. Con­ceivably, the isolation of a human body for long periods from such influences would dull the responses, which would end by becoming atrophied or by causing, through their cessation, diminished or excessive functions elsewhere.
                  The lesson to be learnt from Boyd, as he himself recognizes, is that certain energies may derange the subtle dynamic balance of the healthy organism without necessary  reference to a predisposition. Body energies (as shown by the Emanometer) are susceptible to interference effects, in which process their ideal distribution is disturbed. Such a modification however entails special physical relations be­tween the periods of the body energies and the periods of the interfering agents. For one wave train to interfere with another, both must be of the same general family or type. They must: also be nearly or absolutely identical in frequency, depending on the effect taking place; for this determines the phase relationship and whether the result will be an augmentation or a reduction in strength of the components. More generally expressed, in order for body energies to be affected through direct interaction with energies in the environment, a specific relationship is re­quired. Unrelated energies, may arouse a general reflex hut will probably not destroy the balance of body energies. It is just another working of the familiar principle of resonance. Disparity will not cause, interference : syntony will.
                With such facts in mind, specific sensitivities become more intelligible.      What injures one man leaves another; unaffected: whether it be pollens carried in the, articles of food, damp locations in which to live, and even the per....
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...sons with whom one associates; for all of these have dynamic properties demonstrable on the Ernanometer. The response   of  any one  person  depends  not  only on  his temperament, his heredity, his constitution ; it depends, in the deepest sense,  on  the  kind  of   dynamic  complementswhich  appear to  direct and maintain his  somatic whole. If agents with  which  he  comes in  contact or  into whose sphere of  influence he moves have  the necessary specific relationship,  his dynamis is  deranged : the normally low
intensity energies  are intensified.  If the  source  remains, this chronic dynamic alteration, exerting a constant abnormal influence, eventually results in symptoms and disease. We know little concerning how prolonged such influences must be in order to cause permanent dynamic changes in the body. But once the dynamis becomes abnormal, the tissue and organic systems which it directs tend also to become abnormal.  It is readily seen how these facts underly and surround the whole fields of anaphylaxis, allergy, immunity.    The same facts invade psychology.  When is an apparently free thought really induced by subconscious res-ponses to specific agents ?  How much are we indeed free agents ?  Is not our existence much more continuous with the inorganic  environment than we had proof of before such researches as Boyd's ? Another conclusion is of considerable interest in the light of orthodox medicine's materialistic approach to health and disease. The body has been regarded as a complex unit in which something may go wrong, usually from materialistic causes (dietary deficiencies ; lowered resistance from such gross causes as insufficient rest ; whole­sale bacterial invasion, as in syphilis ; conditions follow­ing injuries, from which the body fails completely to re­cover ; etc.). But if the reality of Boyd's work is acknowledged, it is evident that all physiological disease is preceded by a dynamic alteration whose nature (let us say, whose frequency pattern, as established by the Emanometer) determines the kind of functional and tissue changes..
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..to follow. The physical body is attended by formative agencies which are integrated into the pattern of the indivi­dual : and this pattern is closely followed by the soma. When the formative agencies depart from their normal, the soma tends to follow their new directive influence. In cases where the dynamic alteration is observed before the occurrence of physiological effects, it has been found that a correction of the dynamis will prevent the subsequent appearance of symptoms and pathology.Thus, the energies detected by the Emanometer are directive and integrative : they leash together the hetero­geneity of body activities and determine the body's direc­tion, whether it will travel along the path of health or of disease. And the soma emerges as the consequence of prior agencies, it is not itself a primary phenomenon ; it is not a self-contained mechanistic unit. It is the physical phase of a completer reality and as, such possesses no more auto­nomy than any partial phase of nature. And the so-called " vitalistic " thinkers, who refused to
perceive in living things only physico-chemical processes,are in part vindicated. The accuracy of the vitalistic intui­tion is especially evident when we remember that these
energies are not even electrical, as electricity is conventional­ly understood. Either they are non-electrical or they re­present an aspect of electrical behavior totally different from any known before. All the biological phenomena so far discussed are interrelated, and together they constitute the whole organ
..
 
 * G. Stromberg, from purely logical considerations, has also conclud­ed that underlying all biological phenomena is an individual formative agency which has not only the power of directing1, somatic development
and maintaining somatic configuration during life but has also the gift of immortality. For Stromberg, space is inhabited by these formative agencies, which  collectively give shape and character to the universe :
to inanimate as well as animate material. But so far as can be deter­ mined from Stromberg's references, he was compelled  to assume many of the points experimentally obtained by Boyd and others and described
in this essay.
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        .. . .ism. In the case of man, the role of physiological coordinator is assumed by the autonomic nervous system. This system manifests the reflexes, of which the percussion effect is one fnly. Essentially, the change in note is pro­duced by an alteration in muscle tonus under the influence of energy from a " specimen " of human secretion or from a drug. The autonomic appears to be influenced as a whole, and it proceeds to elicit not only the muscle reflex but many others such as various changes in the circulation, dilation of tfte pupil of the eye, a slight alteration of the color of the iris, a number of sensations associated with taste and touch, and so forth. The reflexes most easily observed are the muscle effect under percussion, the pupil effect, and detectable differences in the pulse quality and rhythm and in the heartbeat as shown by the fluoroscope.
Another method of eliciting the muscle reflex has been worked out by dowsers with their divining rods which act as magnifiers of minute muscle movements occur­ring when the diviner crosses an area saturated with dow­sing rays. Perhaps in general the dowsing technique is not so well suited to the extremely delicate energies of specimens and drugs, although preliminary experiments in this direction by the Foundation for Homoeopathic Research have yielded interesting results. Moreover, the dowsing reflex is generalized,; whereas at least the abdominal reflexes of Boyd and Abrarms are specific to energies of varying resonance characteristics. The autonomic appears to be the chief physiological inciter of these effects in its res­ponse to the various energies. And the whole problem of dowsing is thus closely related to the work of Boyd and Abrams, the  chief differences being apparently one of de­gree rather than of kind.
                     Researches by the Foundation for Homoeopathic Re­search have shown that reflexes in response to specific sti­muli may be observed without the use of a mechanical tuner. This, approach is useful in determining sensitivity to drugs on other agents. The response is general in nature instead of being localized like the abdominal reflex.
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As the abdomen reacts in patches, a better area for elicit­ing the general reflex is just above the lung apex, (if this region is steadily percussed and drugs (in  glass vials.) are brought up to the patient one at a time, certain drugs will cause a noticeable change in the percussion note, but at vary­ing distances, according to the patient's sensitivity. The greater the distance between drug and patient at which the effect takes place the greater the sensitivity. Since, as has been determined clinically, the sensitivity of the patient is roughly proportional to the curative value of the drug, the drug which causes the reflex at the greatest distance is most closely related to the case —i.e., is most curative. A good drug will be effective at supervising distance — up to 200 feet, as far as has been tried.* Little is known which will account either for the specificity of the patient's re­action to this delicate stimulus or for the ability of the drug energy to traverse distances which much coarser and intenser energies cannot bridge.
Other reflexes mentioned earlier, such as the dilation of the eye-pupil or changes in the pulse rhythm and amplitude, also occur in proximity to specific drugs. All are generalized responses similar to that shown by percussing the lung apex,, but they can be elicited only when the sepa­ration of patient and drug does not exceed a few feet— two or three for most satisfactory observation. Here the therapeutic criterion is not distance but the degree, to which the reflex takes place and the constancy with which it recurs on, repeated trials.29 It is interesting to note that the vari­ous reflexes tried separately will usually indicate this same drug, showing the unity and coordination of the body's response.
Although organisms possessing an autonomic nervous organization  are  coordinated  by  it, some  organisms of a....
 
* It is a curious fact, but one which has been confirmed in many tests, that a drug held in the hand (say by an assistant) will cause the refiex in a susceptible patient, at a much greater distance than the same drug carried away at the end of a pole made of dielectric material. Contact with a human being seems to enhance the carryingpower of .the drug energies.   The reason for this is not known.
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.......simpler kind possessing no nervous structures at all are nevertheless able to function as a unit. This suggests that protoplasm in itself has a responsive faculty and that the res­ponse may be constructive for the organism as a whole. The researches of W. M. Persson at Leningrad involved the stimulation and inhibition of enzyme activity by dilute substances, including dilutions well past the point where solute molecules theoretically disappear.30 (This point is in the neighbourhood of the 10-20 dilution.) Whether enzy­mes live is a moot question ; if they do, they are certainly amongst the simplest of living creatures. For our purpose, they may be considered living material.
             Persson found that specific drugs activated certain enzymes in a regular fashion, depending on the degree of dilution, and that the dilutions which activated were sepa­rated by dilutions which inhibited the enzymes in a sort or sinusoidal alternation. Thus the velocity of starch inversion was stimulated by corrosive sublimate in decimal dilutions 10-15,10-25,10-45 ,10-65,10-95,10-110 with maximum enhance­ment at 10-65; whereas depression resulted from the sublimate in dilutions 10-6, 10-20, 10-35, lO-55, 10-85, lO-105 . It will be recalled that all dilutions above the 20th decimal 1O-20 represent the holdover of the drug dynamis with none of the original molecules surviving the process of dilution. Hence, the enzymes responded as a whole to he same kind of influence which can correct the dynamis of a sick person. It the extreme simplicity of enzyme structure (as com­pare with the simplest true cell ) is able to react as a unit organism, there is, presumptively, a further physiological factor in the response of a human being than the mere stimulation and reaction of the autonomic nervous system. The dynamis underlies all physiology. It functions directively in the original, fertilized ovum before cell differen­tiation (including, nerve formation), has taken place.No doubt the very structure of protoplasm, its activity, its tropisms, are fashioned and maintained by the immanent dynamis. And the kind of drug reaction discussed in this essay is probably the profoundest action of physiology, in.....
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volving not only the sensitive nerves but the whole mass of body material down to the smallest protoplasmic drop. This total response, apart from organic systems, is th true, the deepest life activity from the physiological viewpoint.*
But the energies are themselves interlaced with physio­logy.  Indeed, the physiological total is not an autonomous organism deriving its characteristics from its physico-chemi­cal nature. Instead, the physiological total appears to be hung on an invisible framework of unknown energies. This dynamic framework, according to its pattern, delineates the physiological characteristic. t The dynamis is the most fundamental of all the factors yet found associated with living beings. When it adheres to a theoretically normal pattern, the physiological functioning is also normal, and the organism is said to be healthy. When the dynamis is disturbed and remains so, sooner or later the physiology adjusts itself to the new influence, symptoms develop, and the organism is said to be ill. Even the autonomic nervous system, despite its preeminence as physiological coordinator, is as amenable to the dynamis as the rest of the soma. Still, we do not yet know what is the exact role of the dynamis in biology .We do not know its physical characteristics. We cannot explain why such a  dynamis is associated not only with living creatures but also with in­animate material such as drugs, including drugs composed....
 
                                          * Wm E.Boyd of Glasgow repeated Persson's experiments with comparable results. Boyd however prepared his microdoses with scrupulous care, using a separate vial for each dilution, to ensure getting effects in the higher dilutions from the pure drug dynamis in the absence of solute molecules. The last published  account31 described effects of dilu­tions from lO-6 to lO-14, obviously not yet in the ultramolecular  region. His work continues.
t  The work of Baron von Roichenbach is doubtless worthy of much deeper study by modern scientists than it has received .Reichenbaeh's con­cept of Od as a sort of etheric envelope surrounding and influencing the physical body; of living beings is reminiscent of the energies found by the Emanometer. But Reichenbach's approach was through psychic, mediumistic and other subjective methods, whereas an instrument like the Emano­meter gives objective data.

 
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            ....of  inorganic  minerals. These  manifold aspects of  life must be thoughtfully remembered.
Moreover, it must be constantly borne in mind that the dynamis, the physiology, the changes these have resulted in the slow  evolution of living things, are not separate unrelated aspects of terrestrial history but are closely depend­ent on one  another.  The whole effort of evolution is an adjustment  by life to express itself in harmony with its inorganic environment ;  the  resultant physiology and  dynamic qualities are part of that evolution, have grown out of  biological  adaptations, and owe  much  of   their present character to the inorganic world in which they developed.  Life is not a random breath blown over the face of the earth, to disappear without a trace  in a few millenia.  Life is the very  breath of  the earth, of the  Universe.  It is part of  them,a small part measured physically,an extraordinarily wonderful part on the basis of its peculiar qualities. This unitary concept must underlie  any serious attempt to understand the meaning of creation.
 
 8.  The Dynamis and Parapsychology.
 
                 If everyone were familiar with the foregoing evidence, the investigations of J.B.Rhine in the realm of para-psychology  would meet with less prejudiced opposition. Just as the occurrence of migratory and gregarious habits in the animal world, the existence of deep and specific in­stincts, the phenomena of dowsing, and the discoveries of  White, Abrams and Boyd disclose one aspect of biologi­cal adjustment to its milieu through purely physiological effects, so also another approach reveals the existence of a link which transcends the relative grossness of physiology. And the pioneer in this approach today is J. B. Rhine.32 His place in the history of science will probably be that of having first investigated telepathy and clairvoyance with scientific methods. Knowing that the occurrence or equally probable events is capable of statistical evaluation, he worked out a technique in which the results could be weighed against a chance ratio. He had arbitrary symbols drawn on five cards. One person, the "sender ",
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shuffled the pack, then picked up one card at a time while a " recipient," protected from visual clues, called out the card. Over a long series of tests it is clear that accidental right calls would occur one fifth of the time ; just as the average number of heads or tails over many tosses of a coin would be one half of the total number of tosses. However, Rhine soon found that certain experimental subjects gave correct calls far in excess of the chance ratio. A variation of this purely telepathic approach attempted to involve only a clairvoyant faculty. An operator shuffled the deck, then placed the cards face down without examining them, while the recipient called out the order of the cards from top to bottom or vice versa. This eliminated any telepathic faculty because no one knew the order of the cards. It was observed that a recipient good at the tele­pathy work gave an equally good score with the clairvoyant tests. Hence, these two extrasensory faculties were tenta­tively linked together ; both appeared to be functions of an unknown awareness working independently of the senses, from which all clues were carefully shielded. In practice, Rhine used 25 cards in a deck in which each symbol was repeated five times. Some of his subjects consistently scored much higher than the chance figure.Further work was undertaken to see whether increased distance between sender* and recipient had any effect on the scores. Here again a good score between a couple at close quarters tended to remain unchanged even in cases where the separation was increased to over a thousand miles, the action of the subject; being suitably synchronized by electrical means. There was, apparently, some sort oi interaction between sender and recipient which was un­affected by distance. It was an anomalous situation in that the usual weakening effects of space on action-at a-distance did not hold true. This anomaly will be clearer by recollecting the beha...
 
 
            * In the telepathic experiments, of course, the sender was an operator  who looked at each card ; in the clairvoyant work, the unseen but shuffled deck must be regarded, as sender.
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viour of radiations in general. A radiation source may be considered to emit an infinite series of expanding concentric shells. A sphere of twice a given diameter possesses four times the area and will, accordingly, be illuminated at a given arc of its periphery by one fourth the photon swarm that illuminates the same arc at the periphery of the inner sphere. Hence, the law that radiation varies in intensity inversely as the square of the distance : at twice the distance, intensity is reduced one fouth ; at three times the distance, one ninth, etc. This law governs electromagnetic radia­tions and mechanical wave phenomena like sound and water waves. So far as is known, the only agents capable of action-at a-distance are undulatory in character.*
Whatever the exchange involved in extrasensory per­ception tests, they simulate the long distance effects of radiation. Hence, one would expect that if a given score prevailed between a sender and recipient separated by 50 feet, there would be a drop in successful calls when the distance was increased several hundred times, due to the attenuating effect of space. This evidently does not take place, and is in keeping with the age-old tradition of psy­chic dabblers, who have declared such phenomena to violate both space and time limitations. And we may well ask at this point : Can phenomena violate space and time, which have been regarded as the bedrock of our universe, and still remain a part of that universe ?  If we are guided by experimental evidence rather than by prejudice or opinion, we must reply that telepathic and clairvoyant effects, as proved by Rhine, are surely perceived in our universe, regardless of where they actually take place ; and behave as if they could circumvent the usual limitations of time and space by which physical agents are bound. The transmission of a telepathic im­pulse emerges as something quite different from a wave effect between two persons.    It appears in fact as a short-...
 
* Although, as modern physics has  discovered, light is able to perform  work  through its ultimate constitution into particles  (the  photons),  its  movement  results from the organization of the photons into waves.   By virtue of its wave aspects, light travels ; by virtue of its particles, it works.
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circuiting of the material and physical substance of the universe ; so that events ordinarily separated in space and time may communicate with each other. And, if we find it difficult to suppose such a short-circuiting possible within the universe, there is always the more reasonable alternative that it occurs, not outside the universe, but outside of its time-space aspects: i.e., around them.*
            Here appears still another facet of life. In addition to the dynamic and physiological components, a living being possesses also an extrasensory aspect which differs from the physical characteristics in its ability to circumvent them as well as the external physical world. We might picture the physiology as the kernel of the complex living system, surrounded and permeated by the dynamis which extends beyond it, both of these aspects being in turn encompassed by a flexible, immaterial envelope with the ability to swell out at will throughout the physical world uninhibited by the usual physical restrictions This last is of course the extrasensory being, whatever its ultimate nature
.
 
         * The British aeronautical engineer, J. W. Dunne, has recently published a view of the universe in which time is not regarded as series of instants beginning in the past and axtendmg into the present and to the future, like an infinite necklace: in stead he pictures the necklace as thrown in a heap, so that all the beads (instants of time) really touch together, and any concept of a longitudinal necklace strung from beginning to end would depend entirely on the point of view. That is, if one could only travel from bead to bead along the string while the necklace lay heaped up, one would get the idea of sequence (past, present, future) ; whereas by taking a bird's eye view one realises that the beads are really piled to­gether in space, making it difficuit to select any one bead a prior or subsequent. And, Dunne continues,  in dreams one is freed from the usual time concepts so that the individual is able to roam back and form in time. Actually, he claims that if one is trained to rememtxr all his dreams, he will find that those not purely random can be divided into two groups : reminiscent dreams, and prophetic  drearms, about equally divided in number. This suggests to him his theory of what we might call the simultaneity of all time, a theory which he has named serialism. Such a concept is necessary to account for extrasensory phenomena; and, as we shall see in the following section, the existence of an ultimate region encompassing, and free from, time-space limitations, is a mathematical necessity in modern physics.
 
                                                                                           
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             Under certain conditions, some sort of extrasensory faculty may be employed to cure disease —- so-called faith-healing. This at once relates the extrasensory being to the dynamis and the physiology : they may react on one another to produce deep changes in the living creature. Whether a patient were cured by faith or by a drug selected according to the Emanometer technique, in either case one would expect to find a righted dynamic pattern after cure as measured by the Emanometer ; for, regardless of the means of healing, the result would always be the same, both as to be corrected dynamis and the corrected phy­siology. But how is the extrasensory being related to the rest of the organism ? Is it more fundamental even than the dynamis, which itself underlies the relatively gross physiologv ? Are the dynamic and extrasensory states sharply differentiated or do they represent different aspects of a completer reality ? And where does this complex unite with the obvsical world ?
We do not yet know, but the researches of contem­porary physics are suggestive. Let us review them briefly.
 
          9.  Physics and Creation.
 
           The effort to interrelate phenomena as diverse as those discussed in this essay is accompanied by real difficulties. To summarize : There are the purely physical factors of geological evolution and the various physical phenomena possible as a consequence under present earthly conditions. These have given rise to various types of radiations to which living things have developed a sensitivity—bringing in the biological aspects. And the study of biological matter, apart from its response to radiation, has intellectually dichotomised the natural sciences, making quite impossible until recently any satisfactory synthesis that would allocate convincingly the roles of inanimate material and of living beings. Biology is complicated by psychological, para-psychological and autonomic aspects which are hardly to be circumscribed within somatic limits . Whereas most purely physical systems are the arithmetical sum of their parts,
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.       ..biological systems function as if something in addition to the physical constituents assumed the directorship : they appear to be more than the mere sum of their parts. The last point is emphasized by occasional instances of para-phychology or extrasensory perception (telepathy, fore­sight, clairvoyance, etc) which not only transcend the physical boundaries of the organism but indeed appear to violate the space-time limitations of the physical universe. Clairvoyance and foresight often contradict the concept of causality by perceiving (psychically) events not et worked into the apparent pattern of existence.
            Hence, it must be asked whether the materialistic universe is really self-contained or whether it is not a com­plex set of attributes belonging to an ulterior reality. This question is a corollary of the fact that time and space may be circumvented under special conditions and by special agents. The question is also suggested by the failure of physical methods to account for ultimate beginnings or ultimate ends. We observe phenomena which have all the appearance of emerging out of a generating, unperceived matrix.
        The identical problem was formulated several years ago by the physical mathematicians. They were prompted by the breakdown of the mechanistic atomic model pro­posed by Bohr and for so long useful in helping to visualize atomic behaviour. When spectral lines were repeatedly split into several components by placing the light source in a magnetic field, it became clear that the electronic orbits of the Bohr model were no longer suitable to account for the observed facts. Indeed, these orbits were inferential and represented an atom in a state which was never capable of direct observation — a state of repose ; it was only when an electron jumped from an outer to an inner orbit that it emitted radiation and wave capable of observation Hence in 1925, Heisenberg proposed that all purely inferential descriptions be omitted from physics, which should confine itself to observable events. In atomic physics, the observables were the frequency of emitted radiations and the....
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...energy level in the atomic structure. Schroedinger came to a similar conclusion from another direction. He resolved material particles into wave systems and dispersed them in a perfectly transparent medium, the wave velocity in­creasing with the wave frequency. Waves of two frequen­cies could exist together, and the velocity of the wave group differed from the velocity of one component frequency, as in the familiar case of water waves. Thus, a material particle emerged as a wave group, a storm centre, and what we call the energy was related to the frequency of the wave composing the storm. When these indescribably rapid oscillations — far in excess of any electromagnetic frequency — came together in certain relationships they produced a "beat." And this beat, released into space, manifested itself to us as radiation. Born, Jordan, de Brogue and Dirac extended these purely mathematical concept;, which were quite incapable of visualisation in terrm of a mechanical model (like the Bohr atom) but which certainly fitted all the observable, facts. And the diffraction experiments of Davisson, Kunsman, Germcr, and G. P. Thomson showed eventually that the electron was not, indeed, a massy finite particle but could be experimentally coaxed to display wave characteristics.35,36,37,38,39 The consequence of these studies is of great importance to our theme. The electron had long been regarded as a basic buiding-block of nature, an ultimate particle. It was suddenly broken down into a tangle of waves. Later, the proton, of opposite electrical charge to the electron, like­wise betrayed evidences of a wave composition. What had been considered ultimate particles were themselves con­stituted of ulterior units, and these units were not just smaller particles but were actually wave systems of great complexity and of velocity much greater than light's. The atom's situation is much like that of Dean Swift's flea :
                                                               " So, Nat'ralists observe, a Flea
                                                             Hath smaller Fleas that on him prey,
                                                            And these have smaller Fleas to bite 'em,
And so proceed ad infinitum."
The concepts of radiation also suffered a fundamental
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      ... . .change. Whereas the speed of light had been nailed down as the highest conceivable speed, and whereas light had been regarded as a thing quite apart from matter, the new ideas related the frequency and energy of light to the ultimate ocean of matrix pulsations out of which all physical units appeared to be generated. It was thus necessary for the science of physics, so long mechanistic, to abandon as pri­mary phenomena all the observable events and to consider them the consequences of a matrix from which they were continuously extruded.
            So long as matter and radiation were viewed as ultimates, it was natural to suppose that all phenomena were expressible in their terms by a being acquainted with every factor involved ; and this complete knowledge was expected eventually through constant refinements in experimental technique. The random behaviour of electrons, for instance, was an appearance depende it on our ignorance of all the factors influencing them. But in the pursuit of atomic and other microcosmic phenomena it was soon found that in­creasing accuracy was only possible up to a certain point, beyond which lay a penumbra of increasing uncertainty (to paraphrase Bridgman40). And this penumbra was not the result of our ignorance or or technical errors and crudities but was inherent in the phenomena themselves.
For instance, as Bridgman points out,41 it is possible to measure quite exactly the length of any object composed of countless billion molecules — an object, that is, in the familiar scale to which we art accustomed. If, now, the accu­racy of measurement is pushed to decreasing fractions of an inch, the tolerable error eventually approaches the atomic dimensions of the measured object ; and as even the most rigid bodies do not possess sharp boundaries but terminate in thinning atomic clouds of constantly changing densities and breadth (the result of the kinetic motion of atoms), it becomes impossible to decide the exact pcunt at which the object actually ends. The same limitation applies to the rule itself, if it be material. Measurements of this extreme accuracy hence resolve themselves into the opposition of a flowing standard against a flowing object under mensura-
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.....tion, and the final result is an approximation determined by averaging out the atomic clouds at each pair of ends. And since the exactness with which large objects can be measur­ed depends on the exactness of measurement of the very small, the effort at unequivocal determinacy is at once frustrated by an inherent quality of nature. The principle ol indeterminacy (uncertainty) was first propounded by Heisenberg . It is one of the most important contributions to modern physics.
        Again : randomness may be expressed as a relation­ship between the physical constituents of the universe ; this relationship is extracted out of random elements by statis­tical calculations. The workings of chance arrange them­selves into definite patterns only when the chance events are extremely numerous ; there appears to be no pattern of individual behaviour. But this lack of pattern is not solely a semblance arising from our incomplete knowledge of causes. Even if all the contributing factors to an event were known, they might still fail in determining the cause. The knowledge of causes is not sufficient to an understand­ing of chance. Chance, indeed, and the grouping of random elements into conceivable patterns express the secondary character of physical units arising from a pri­mary region. Chance is an appearance amongst physical units : it is not capable of directly explaining anything except in terms of a remoter reality which it partially represents. Thus chance is related to the principle of indeterminacy. Both are inherent in nature ; both tend to limit the closeness of our approach to physical units ; yet both paradoxically contradict themselves by indicating an aggregate pattern which is only evident by a contemplation of many individual cases.
        The tentative picture of the universe drawn by mathe­matical physics is very curious and in sharp contrast to the mechanical model elaborated by the physics of the nine­teenth century. A universal medium is postulated called variously the matrix, subether, substratum, and, by Schroedinger, designated in his equationns by the Greek symbol , psi. This medium is filled with waves of inconceivable fre-
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 ..quency and velocity, beside which the shortest electromagnetic oscillations are sluggish and coarse. The matrix waves may be visualized as rapidly pulsating throughout their medium. And in their myriad oscillations they pile up here and there in storm centers of many components, hence of great complexity. A storm center is a region where the components by interference have piled up their crests and deepened their troughs, producing total amplitudes far above the normal for the original matrix waves. From each storm center the waves spread out throughout space with increasing velocity and diminishing amplitude : so that it may be said that no strict boundary exists for a given storm. Both the dimensions and position a storm are governed by the chance relation of the matrix waves building them up. And the frequency of the original waves plus their manner of interfering determine the undulatory characteristics of a storm. We perceive — indeed, we are composed of—the reinforced wave sums of which the storm centers are made. We do not actually see he piled-up waves but receive a secondhand impression of their workings. This impression is interpreted by our senses as that experience which we call " matter". Indeed, the storm is nothing but one of the so-called ultimate particles of matter, an electron, a proton, and so on, each kind resulting from different combinations of the matrix waves. But the matrix waves are themselves far removed from sensory detection. They are so rapid and fine structured that no material instrument would serve as a detector. The whole rippling matrix continually regurgitates the physical universe : and we see only that which is already extruded, never the mechanics by which the regurgitation is accom­plished. Thus, the physical world of which we are cons­cious and which represents for us all that is tangible, fixed and lasting, turns out to be only a gossamer substance without solidity or real extenision in time, a breath blown out by the mother matrix which itself, like the termite queen, remains forever hidden.
This reference to the termites is not- irrelevant. Somehow it is necessary to relate to the physical world all
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 ..of the explicable biological phenomena described in this essay : Seen facts as the memory of a species by which it preserves its integrity over generations ; and the similar memory of an individual organism by which it maintains its individuality over a lifetime of taking in food, excret­ing wastes, rebuilding its every cell over and over without becoming a different creature ; such facts as the purposivenese of evolution following the biological impulse to adapt, to develop greater economy and smoothness of operation ; such facts as the various instinctive orientations of living beings to the inorganic milieu that helped to form them, the various migrations, the specific skills through which insects maintain a social order, the directional faculty of most inimals, unknown modes of communication bet­ween animals, and the other keen communions which warn and direct living things ; such facts as telepathy in man, and clairvoyance, and foresight, and intuition, and the host of autonomic reflexes which reveal agents in nature too delicate to be detected by purely instrumental means. Some of these can be superficially explained in a materialistic way: observers may conclude, on wholly insufficient evidence, that bird migrations relate to the magnetic lines of force of the earth. Other phenomena are frankly puzzling, especially to the materialistic mind, for instance, telepathy ; and the mechanical viewpoint, in dealing with such pheno­mena, takes refuge in declaring them impossible. Yet tele­pathy appears to be a fact, and its most outstanding feature is its emancipation from the restrictions of time and space under which materialistic phenomena labour.
          What do we mean by emancipation from time and space ? How can basic qualities be freed from themselves without having more fundamental regions in which to move ? If the material universe were the ultimate, the self-contained unit of older physics, it would whisper its final analysis of itself : eventually all the facts would be collected : nothing new would be left to discover. And so nineteenth century physicists imagined. The enigma of creation for them was enclosed in a cubicle of space per­meated by an absolute time and sown with the massy cor..
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...puscles of matter. But the enigma lies all beyond these appearances. It is the vast regions in which time and space are circumvented that hold the real answer : the regions which appear, in the mathematical discussions of Schroedinger, Dirac and others, as the matrix, the subether, the substratum — Schroedinger' s mathematical, psi.
And of all manifest creation, biological creatures appear to bear the special gift of unconscious orientation within this matrix. It is unnecessary to consider further instances than the extrasensory awareness unearthed by Prof. Rhine in his laborious and prodigious tests. We have already mentioned the physical significance of his distance experiments,of the fact that the intervention of a thou­sand miles of space between the sender and recipient of a telepathic ''message" made no apparent difference in the accuracy of the score. It is good to recall that so eminent a mind as Dr. Alexis Carrel expressed his conviction that another category of parapsychology, faith-healings such as those at Lourdes, cannot be dismissed now that they are corroborated by a medical board established at the shrine for the purpose of analysing the cases. What struck Carrel especially was not the mere fact that a profound act of faith, could set in motion the healing powers of the body : he was most impressed by the observation that the normal physiological repairs were extraordinarily accelerated. A gravely ill patient with much pathology became cured abruptly ; it was a matter of hours, instead of weeks, tor the tissues to repair themselves, and the sense of well-being in the patient was instantaneous and lasted throughout the whole brief but complete convalescence.42 We do not know how the body achieves such miracles ; but it is obvious that ordinary physical stimuli will not spur recuperation to such lengths.
       What is the relation between extrasensory faculties, the physiology, the dynamis ? — between them and the physical world ? Is the dynamis a direct messenger from the matrix, or is it a sort of intermediary between the matrix and perceptible phenomena ? Or may these ques­tions be meaningless from the point of view of nature ?
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           Have living beings an unknown channel of communication with the matrix , the mother rrutrix in which exist the force-patterns about which the forms of the physical universe are grouped ? Is para-psychology a revela­tion of this remote realm too fine-structured for per­ception by the senses ? And do biological organisms, because of their relative degrees of consciousness, provide so many shuttered windows, briefly thrown open, into this profound region of the matrix eternally pulsating and form­ing, reabsorbing and reforming the visible universe ? Does real consciousness exist as an orientation within the matrix, and is our orientation in the physical world a deception arising from coarse senses whose messages are loud-­mouthed, drowning out the more subtle whispers from the matrix ? Is it the reality of the matrix which makes of biological organisms a total exceeding the sum of the parts ? Are the intuitive faculties of the mind, as distinguished from the intellectual, the intrusion of the matrix into cognition ? Surely, if the matrix is the origin of creation, if it main­tains the cinema of time and space, if it encompasses time and space so that neither is an ultimate but only an attri­bute of reality, then a glimpse into the matrix is an extra-sensory revelation. Such a glimpse suddenly reveals the depth of things in any direction, past or present, to any extent in space. And such a glimpse seriously shakes the time-space illusion in which we have been educated by our senses
 
 10. Summary.
 
            The universe is more wonderful than we can imagine. Once upon a time, it did not exist as we know it today. Unknown forces set in motion the processes through which have arisen, the present boundaries of space, pregnant with millions of galaxies and billion of suns. Each sun is independent, flaming silently in its corner of the universe ; yet the shape and properties of the whole universe are determined by the total of suns. Suns and interstellar dust are composed of atoms, which in turn are built up of
 
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The patients are just about as anxious as the Arsenicum patients — in fact all these anginous patients are anxious — but instead of the intense chilliness of the Arsenic they are uncomfortable in heat and in a stuffy atmosphere. They are just about as restless, but instead of the pale, drawn appear­ance which you get in Arsenic, they tend to be rather flushed, and as a rule they are dark-haired, dark-complexioned people. They are rather underweight, in spite of the fact that they have always been pretty good livers and very often have an appetite above the average although they have not been putting on weight.    These cases respond exceedingly well to Iodine. Then there is yet another type of case in which instead of the complaint being of constriction it is of a progressive sensation of swelling in the heart region. It feels as if the heart gets bigger and bigger until it would finally burst, and this sensation of fullness spreads up into the neck.
This sensation of fullness and swelling is very much aggravated by lying down, when the patient feels as if he would nearly choke  and it is accompanied by very acute pain.The patients themselves are chilly and any draught of air increases their distress. 
In addition to the feeling of distension, they usually complain of more or less marked numbness, particularly of the left arm and hand, though very frequently there is numbness of the hand only without any involvement of the arm, and not infrequently they complain of numbness of the lower extremities too. As a rule the face and neck give you the impression of being some what congested; they do not have the pale, drawn, wrinkled Arsenicum appearance. And these cases respond well to Spongia. Another drug which you will find useful in a condition which is somewhat similar, though not an angina at all, but which you meet with in hysterical women. You will fail to find any cardiac lesion, but they will produce a symptom picture difficult to distinguish from a true anginous attack. They have the very marked stabbing, radiating pains, and often an intense hyperesthesia of the chest wall. They are very depressed, frightened, and intensely irritable. They are sensitive to heat, and their distress is aggravated by any move­ment. In addition to the stabbing pains they have the anginous sense of constriction,  tightness, of the chest wall. These cases are usually associated with some kind of pelvic lesion, or a history of having had some gynaecological illness.
I have seen quite a number of these cases now in which an electro-cardiogram shows no lesion at all. And all the symptoms have cleared up entirely with Lilium tig. So you see when you are confronted with one of these very distressing conditions where you have to make a quick decision, it is fairly easy to individualize and get something which will give almost instantaneous relief.
 
- By Dr. Douglas M. Borland
 
 

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DISCUSSION

Dr. McCrae thought the paper was a masterpiece. There was nothing in it to criticize, there were details of valuable help to everybody which were like the artist sharpening his pencil to produce some line of particular splendour which would make the picture complete. Most had pencils but they were blunt, and the homeopath would always be grateful for these amazingly useful hints.

Dr. John Paterson said that they had listened to a real clinical paper. There was not much which one could criticize, but one might add a little. With regard to the cardiac cases, Arsenic and Sulphur his experience was that Arsenic was often the acute of Sulphur and on  the mental side they were the exact opposite. One found that a Sulphur patient swung in an acute condition to Arsenic and Dr. Boland had brought out that point. He was interested in the question of Aconite acting in the first attack but not in the second. There had been many discussions about covering the totality of the symptoms and here was evidence that the homeopathic remedy could be prescribed on the mental symptoms which worked in the first instance but it did not cover the whole of the case. It was possible to prescribe homeopathically with­out covering the whole of the case, only covering a phase because obviously on the next occasion the pain was present but not the fear, the Aconite had removed one phase of the case — mental fear. Aconite came out very strongly in the air raids.   Another remedy was Natrum Mur.
He wondered if any orthodox practitioners were surprised that there was no mention of Digitalis but Digitalis was quite useful in these slightly relaxing hearts in homeopathic doses, not in the massive doses given in allopathic medicine.

Dr. Stonham said that the paper was excellent and the sort of paper which would appeal to the general practitioner, who was always coming up against acute cases. To have such cases so plainly stated with the drug indications for them was  valuable. There were one or two points he would like to mention with regard to Aconite which, as Dr. Borland had , was very useful in many cases.   The case which he did not mention was the acute pulmonary oedema. He had given. Aconite 30 in such cases and it quickly calmed the patient in that distressing and somewhat dangerous condition and he had found it valuable not only in the first case but also in cases when the attack has been repeated. Dr. Borland said he gave Laurocerasus in acute heart complaints. He had had an acute case with Cheyne-Stokes respiration, it looked as if the patient would die, he gave Hydrocyanic Acid and he recovered very nicely. Many people would substantiate the value of Dr. Borland's paper.

Dr. G. R. Mitchell said that a clinical paper was most useful. He wanted to criticize something Dr. Paterson said when he took the Aconite example as not prescribing on the totality. He would have thought it was an example of pres­cribing on that procedure because in the first case, on all the manifestations, Aconite was the drug, and it worked and on the second occasion there was a different totality, and the Aconite did not work. That was the way he would have re­garded the matter.

Dr. Hardy added her grateful thanks to Dr. Borland for his paper. With regard to medicines for heart complaints she agreed with Dr. Paterson that Digitalis 200, one dose, was very effective in the semi-chronic or chronic case of the right sided congestion, blue face and blue nails, but not in the acute patient. She also used mother tincture Crataegus for heart patients because it was specific for the cardiac muscle. An­other drug which was used in Russia was Adonis mother tinc­ture, five drops to a dose. ..the wonderful collection of details on which indications had been given and which were of the greatest possible value. The paper would require a great deal of study, so that these indi­cations could be taken for future use.
He was rather in favour of trying to keep the remedies which were very definitely specific for particular conditions because in cases where there was an emergency there was no time to seek for all the exact indications which might help, but he was rather surprised that Dr. Borland did not make more use of the Snake Poisons in heart cases because he must admit he would not be without Lachesis. If there was any suggestion of heart failure he would give Lachesis and would be surprised if it did not answer. There was one rather in­teresting point from the homeopathic point of view with regard to Snake Poisons and that was to think of the first thing which an individual felt when he was bitten by a snake, which was death, and when death threatened the patient ,the prescriber should think of the Snake Poisons. He mentioned this in a paper he read on Snake Poisons in Berlin just before the war and it attracted the attention of reporters who were pre­sent. In the Berliner Tageblatte there appeared in headlines, "When death threatens, think of the Snake Poisons."..

Dr. Alva Benjamin said that with regard to the collapse cases one would have thought that Dr. Borland would have mentioned Veratrum Album for cases of great coldness and excessive sweating. With regard to heart cases he had had a lot of help from Chamomilla, particularly when the pain was very severe. ..

Dr. W. Lees Templeton said that most of them felt that they had been back at school and he felt not only humbled but humiliated, for he must admit that he did not get such good results, possibly because one did not always get the symptoms. Most of the emergencies he saw were unable to give symptoms and one had to judge on appearances. He was glad, therefore, that Dr. Borland had elaborated on the ap­pearance of the patient, because that was important. With regard to drugs, he did not find Ant. Tart,  useful in heart cases because he believed the pathology was different. He thought Ant. Tart, had a pulmonary pathology, not cardiac. Carbo Veg. had a great and justifiable reputation as the "corpse reviver" and it did work when the appropriate symp­toms were present. Cold sweat he looked upon as a guiding symptom for Verat. Alb. and he had verified its value in collapse. He was sorry that Dr. Borland was not more speci­fic in his diagnoses, e.g. if pain was due to coronary thrombosis he doubted if the high potency alone would ease this parti­cular pain in a matter of minutes.
The wait with the patient for four or five hours for the second presentation was a serious matter when one was called out in the middle of the night, and like confinements many of these emergencies did occur at night. Why was this, he wondered?

                   Excerpt from :  The British  Homoeopathic  journal,   March   1946
 
 
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